Chapter 9

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The Cell

D. Animal cells form a cell plate during cytokinesis while plant cells do not

Which of the following is NOT true concerning mitosis
A. Animal cells have centrioles while plant cells do not
B. Both plant and animal cells undergo cytokinesis
C. Mitosis allows growth and increase in size in both plants and animals
D. Animal cells form a cell plate during cytokinesis while plant cells do not
E. Mitosis creates diploid cells from diploid cells

A. Cytokinesis

The term that refers to division of the cytoplasm is:
A. Cytokinesis
B. Anaphase
C. Apoptosis
D. Karyokinesis
E. Fission

A. Angiogenesis

Cancer cells require lots of nutrients, which are supplied by blood vessels. The growth of new blood vessels to cancerous tissue is called:
A. Angiogenesis
B. Metastasis
C. Carcinogenesis
D. Apoptosis
E. Mutation

B. Nucleoid

The sturcture that contains the genetic information in a bacterial cell is called the:
A. Nucleus
B. Nucleoid
C. Nucleolus

D. Have the same amount of DNA and the same number of chromosomes as all other cells of the organism

Virtually all specialized cells of multicellular organisms:
A. Develop through mutation from less specialized cells of the organism
B. Contain more genetic material than less specialized cells of the same organism
C. Contain less genetic material than less specialized cells of the same organism
D. Have the same amount of DNA and the same number of chromosomes as all other cells of the organism
E. None of these

C. Chromatin

The term used for DNA in a nucleus BEFORE it becomes condensed in preparation for mitosis is:
A. Eukaryote
B. Chromosome
C. Chromatin
D. Cytokinesis
E. Centromere

E. All the above are true

Generally, animals build an organism using the diploid number of chromosomes. However, insects in the order of ants, wasps, and bees can use a haploid-diploid system where adults of one sex are formed with a haploid number of chromosomes. This would mean that:
A. A single set of chromosomes is sufficient to code for a functional individual
B. A female could determine the sex of the offspring by fertilizing or not fertilizing an egg
C. the males and females are not equally "related" to their mothers considering the proportion of genes held in common
D. Not all animals must be diploid in order to be viable
E. All the above are true

B. The number of genes per chromosome may vary among organisms, preventing a simple relationship between chromosome number and complexity

Generally, complex organisms do require more genes to control their synthesis and organization than do primitive organisms. However, the numbers of chromosomes vary from ants with 2, molds with 8-14, humans with 46, potatoes with 100, and the crayfish with 200! Given this, then:
A. There must be no relationship between amount of genetic information and complexity of the organism.
B. The number of genes per chromosome may vary among organisms, preventing a simple relationship between chromosome number and complexity
C. Mitosis must differ from organism to organism
D. Simpler organisms have more DNA than more complex organisms
E. All of the choices are correct

A. 23

The haploid (n) number of chromosomes for humans is:
A. 23
B. 24
C. 44
D. 46
E. 48

D. Mitosis uses a 2n parent cell to form daughter cells containing n chromosomes.

Which statement is NOT true about mitosis?
A. Mitosis is a process that duplicates and divides the nuclear contents only
B. Mitosis produces two daughter cells that contain the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell
C. Mitosis produces two daughter cells that contain the same kinds of chromosomes as the parent cell
D. Mitosis uses a 2n parent cell to form daughter cells containing n chromosomes.
E. Mitosis is involved in development of a fertilized egg into a multicellular organism

D. G1, S, G2, M

Which represents the correct sequence of stages in the cell cycle?
A. G1, G2, S, M
B. G1, G2, M, S
C. G1, M, G2, S
D. G1, S, G2, M
E. G1, M, S, G2

A. Leave the cell cycle in a G0 phase, which immediately follows telophase

Below the skin are "stem cells" that divide, with some cells continuing the stem cell line and others being pushed toward the surface to flatten and die and be sloughed off. In the bone marrow are other stem cells producing cells such as the erythrocytes that lose their nucleus and function for a few months in the bloodstream before they too die. Such "dead end" cells that reproduce no further:
A. Leave the cell cycle in a G0 phase, which immediately follows telophase
B. Leave the cell cycle in a G3 phase, which immediately follows G2
C. Halt in the midst of the S phase
D. Continually cycle but simply fail to go through cytokinesis
E. Reverse from G2 to G1

A. G1 to S stage and G2 to M stage

The critical checkpoints that control the cell cycle are at the:
A. G1 to S stage and G2 to M stage
B. S to G2 stage and G2 to M stage
C. M to G1 stage and G2 to M stage
D. M to G1 stage and S to G2 stage
E. S to G2 stage annd G2 to M stage

B. G1 phase

During which stage of the cell cycle is cell growth and replication of organelles most significant?
A. M phase
B. G1 phase
C. G2 phase
D. S phase
E. G0 phase

C. Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

Which sequence of stages in mitosis is correct?
A. Prophase, anaphase, prometaphase, metaphase, telophase
B. Prophase, telophase, anaphase, prometaphase, metaphase
C. Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
D. Telophase, anaphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase
E. Anaphase, prometaphase, metaphase, prophase, telophase

B. Chromosomes line up along the equator of the dividing cell

Which occurs in metaphase?
A. Centrioles move to opposite poles
B. Chromosomes line up along the equator of the dividing cell
C. Chromosomes move to opposite poles
D. The nuclear envelope disappears
E. Chromosomes coil and first become visible

C. Chromosomes move to opposite poles

Which occurs in anaphase?
A. Centrioles move to opposite poles
B. Chromosomes line up along the equator of the dividing cell
C. Chromosomes move to opposite poles
D. The nuclear envelope disappears
E. The nuclear envelope is constructed

C. The centromeres split apart

Which does NOT occur in telophase?
A. Cytokinesis usually gets underway
B. The nuclear envelope is being constructed
C. The centromeres split apart
D. Chromosomes de-condense into chromatin
E. The nucleolus reforms

C. The Golgi Apparatus produces vesicles that migrate along microtubules and fuse to become a cell plate

Cytokinesis in plant cells differ from animal cells in the following way:
A. The plant endoplasmic reticulum forms a cell plate
B. Microtubules are constructed into a cell plate pattern
C. The Golgi Apparatus produces vesicles that migrate along microtubules and fuse to become a cell plate
D. The inner plasma divides by cytokinesis as in animal cells and then secretes a cellulose cell wall
E. Asters coalesce to form a fibrous plate that is then reinforced with cellulose

E. All of the choices are correct

Binary fission by bacteria differs from mitosis because
A. The chromosome copies attach to the plasma membrane and are pulled apart by cell growth
B. The chromosome is a simple DNA strand without complex proteins and no spindle forms
C. There is no nuclear membrane to break down and rebuild
D. There is but a single chromosome to replicate and place in two seperate cells
E. All of the choices are correct

A. The means of tissue growth and repair

In multicellular organisms, mitosis is
A. The means of tissue growth and repair
B. A way of generating new kinds of mutant or recombinant organisms
C. The means of sexual reproduction
D. Not useful in stem cell lines that constantly replace skin, etc
E. Able to occur in only a few cells of specialized tissues

B. The disorganized mass of cells is encapsulated and does not invade adjacent tissue

Which is NOT correctly associated with cancer?
A. Angiogenesis forms new blood vessels and brings nutrients and oxygen to the tumor
B. The disorganized mass of cells is encapsulated and does not invade adjacent tissue
C. Metastasis establishes new tumors distant from the site of the primary tumor
D. Cells have receptors to adhere to basement membranes, then secrete proteinase enzymes to invade underlying tissues
E. Telomerase keeps telomeres at a constant length

B. They exhibit contact inhibition

Which of the following is NOT true about cancer cellls?
A. They never fully differentiate
B. They exhibit contact inhibition
C. They exhibit uncontrolled growth
D. They exhibit disorganized growth
E. They may undergo metastasis

B. Metastasis occuring more commonly in organs that have a filter effect

Although cancer may originate in many regions of the body, many patients die from cancerous growth in the lungs, lymph glands, or liver. This is most readily explained as
A. Spreading of cancer byb angiogenesis
B. Metastasis occuring more commonly in organs that have a filter effect
C. Proteinase enzyme making cancer particularly damaging to these tissues
D. Growth anywhere but in these organs is called benign
E. Due to these organs simply being more susceptible to cancer

C. Can be programmed and is essential to normal development

Apoptosis refers to cell death and
A. Is always biologically detrimental to an organism
B. Is merely the accumulation of genetic errors
C. Can be programmed and is essential to normal development
D. Is a failure in the translation or transcription mechanism
E. Is any failure of the genetic machinery to work properly

C. Interphase

Most of the cell cycle is spent in
A. Prophase
B. Cytokinesis
C. Interphase
D. Anaphase
E. None of these

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