Sugar Act (1764)
(also known as the Revenue Act), put duties on foreign sugar and certain luxuries; chief purpose was to raise revenues for the crown, and a companion law also provided for stricter enforcement of the Navigation Acts to stop smuggling; those found smuggling were put in admiralty courts to be tried by crown-appointed judges without trials
Quartering Act (1765)
This act required the colonists to provide food and living quarters for British soldiers stationed in the colonies.
Stamp Act (1765)
used to raise money to support Britidh military on the colonies; enacted by parliament and required that revenue stamps be placed on most printed paper in the colonies, including all legal documents, newspapers, etc.
Virginia lawyer who stood up in front of the House of Burgesses to protest the Stamp Act; "No taxation without representation!"
Stamp Act Congress
called for by James Otis; representatives from nine colonies met in New York in 1765 and resolved that only their elected representatives hadthe legal authority to approve taxes.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Secret society organized for the purpose of intimidating tax collecters; they tarred and feathered revenue officials and destroyed the revenue stamps.
Declaratory Act (1766)
After repealing the Stamp Act, Parliament declared that it had the right to tax and make laws for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever."
Townshend Acts (1767)
New duties were enacted on colonial imports of tea, glass, and paper; the revenue raised would be used to pay crown officials in the colonies; also provided for the search of private homes for smuggled goods; another act suspended New York's assemby for the colony's defiance of the Quartering Act.
wrote Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania; he agreed that Parliament could regulate commerce in the colonies, but should not be able to tax the colonies without consent of their representative assemblies.
Samuel Adams & John Otis
wrote the Massachusetts Circular Letter and sent it to every colonial legislature; they urged the colonies to petition Parliament to repeal the Townshend Acts.
Lord Frederick North
new prime minister of England; urged Parliament to repeal the Townshend Acts because they were hurting trade and were ineffective; as a result the Townshend Acts were repealed on 1770, though a small tax on tea was retained.
Boston Massacre (1770)
British guards, harrassed by colonists near the customs house, fire into a crowd and kill five people; soldiers are defended and aquitted.
He was the African American man who was killed by a British redcoat in the Boston Massacre.
Committees of Correspondence
initiated by Samuel Adams; began the practice of organizing committees that would regularly exchange letters about suspicious or threatening British activities.
The Gaspee was a British customs ship that had caught smugglers; colonists disguised as indians in Rhode Island ordered the crew ashore and burned the ship.
Tea Act (1773)
Passed by Parliament; made the price of the company's taxed tea less expensive than the smuggled Dutch tea.
Boston Tea Party (1773)
In protest against buying England's tea, Bostonians disguised themselves as indians and boarded the East India Company's tea ship in Boston harbor where they dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor.
Coercive Acts /"Intolerable Acts" (1774)
called the "Intolerable Acts" by the outraged colonists; enacted by the British government in retaliation to the Boston Tea Party; to punish the colonies.
A Coercive Act; Closed the port of Boston; prohibited trade in and out of the harbor until the tea was paid for.
Massachusetts Government Act
A Coercive Act; reduced the power of the Massachusetts legislature while increasing the power of the royal governor.
Administration of Justice Act
A Coercive Act; allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in England instead of in the colonies.
Expanded Quartering Act
A Coercive Act; allowed British troops to be quartered in private homes, in all colonies.
Quebec Act (1774)
Law organized the Canadian lands gained from France; est. Roman Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec; set up gov without representative assembly; extended Quebec's boundary to the Ohio River.
colonies exist to enrich the mother country.
Passed in 1650 and 1673; control colonial trade; trade had to be carried by British ships with British crew members; all goods must go through English ports first; determined what goods that the colonies could export (like tobacco)
English Prime Minister in 1763; ordered British Navy to strictly enforce the Navigation laws, thus ending salutary neglect.
King George III
King of England
leader in the First Continental Congress
colonial military general
Marquis de Lafayette
french nobleman; major general in colonial army
Baron Von Steuben
German drillmaster who trained the Continental Army.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
Initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British; on April 18, 1775, British General Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to seize colonial military supplies; the next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war; the battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston and embarrassing casualties.