Final Meteorology

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jet streams

Are very turbulent

Meridional flow is characterized by flow that is ________; while zonal flow is characterized by flow that is ________.

north/south; west/east

Vilhelm Bjerknes:

helped develop a modern theory of the formation, growth, and dissipation of midlatitude cyclones.

The warm sector between the warm and cold fronts is generally characterized by:

clear conditions.

Low pressure systems result from: _______

localized heating of the air from below.

Which of the following are associated with the formation and intensification of surface mid-latitude cyclones?

upper-level divergence and lower-level convergence

Mid-latitude cyclones: _______

often bring substantial changes in wind and temperature.

This is the first step in classical cyclogenesis for a mid-latitude cyclone:_______

a polar front separates masses of warm and cold air.

Of the following steps in classical cyclogenesis of a mid-latitude cyclone, this happens last:

occlusion occurs.

During cyclogenesis, cloud formation will be least intense here: ______

along the boundary of the warm front.

The Bergen scientists noticed that cyclogenesis commonly initiated at all of the following places, except: ______

in the middle of areas with uniform temperatures.

For a mature mid-latitude cyclone, precipitation is least likely at this point: ______

behind the cold front

The warm front associated with a mid-latitude cyclone:

typically forms stratiform clouds.

Mid-latitude cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere typically travel primarily in this direction:

east.

The passage of a mid-latitude cyclone over Saint Louis would probably begin with this: ______

deepening cloud cover with possible light rain showers.

Earth vorticity: ______

is a function of latitude

Regarding vorticity, it is true that: ______

counterclockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere has positive vorticity.

The relationship between vorticity and convergence is such that: ______

increased convergence requires an increase in absolute vorticity over time.

Which of the following statements is NOT true? ______

Upper level divergence causes high pressure at the surface.

Which of the following statements is NOT true? ______

Surface cold fronts do not influence the upper troposphere.

Given the implications of the hydrostatic equation, we would expect that:

cold, dense air would have a greater vertical pressure gradient than would warm, light air.

Rossby waves: ______

have troughs that develop behind surface cold fronts.

It is true that: ______

the temperature at the surface can affect air flow at upper levels of the atmosphere.

Zonal patterns: ______

show little north-south displacement between contour lines on a 500 mb map.

A meridional pattern:

favors formation of major anticyclones.

Upper-level air that flows straight from west to east across the United States: ______

does not have pronounced vorticity characteristics.

The conveyor belt model: ______

focuses on three major flows of air.

In the conveyor belt model, this belt enters the storm flowing westward toward the surface cyclone: ______

cold conveyor belt.

The dry conveyor belt: ______

begins in the upper levels of the troposphere.

Anticyclones

often bring calm weather

The difference between "mid-latitude" cyclones and "tropical" cyclones is that: ______

tropical cyclones have only warm air while mid-latitude cyclones have three kinds of air.

A mid-latitude cyclone reaches its mature stage when: ______

the storm system undergoes occlusion.

In and during the occlusion process, the mid-latitude cyclone accomplishes its major purpose which is: ______

to mix air of different temperatures.

A "Rossby Wave" is also called a

Long wave

Vorticity is a measure of:

Rotation

Upper level divergence coupled with lower level convergence:

all the above

Upper level divergence coupled with lower level convergence:

All the above

Rising air is usually associated with a(n) ________ while sinking air is usually associated with a ________. ______

Trough; Ridge

The surface high and low pressure centers are steered by:

All the above

________ are the "mixmasters" of the atmosphere.

Mid-latitude cyclones

The forming of a Mid-latitude Cyclone is called:

cyclogenesis

The area between the cold front and warm front in a Mid-latitude Cyclone is called the:

warm sector

The hydrostatic equation is a relationship between:

Height, density, and pressure

Which of the following more accurately describes the precipitation patterns of a Mature Cyclone?

intense precipitation

The fronts in a wave cyclone often take on what type of shape?

None of the above

Which of the following is vorticity relative to he Earth's surface? ______

relative vorticity

Which of the following is caused by the localized heating of the air from below?

thermal low

The 1900 Galveston hurricane:

led to thousands of deaths.

Hurricanes generally need water temperatures of what value to form?

80 ºf

Hurricanes are:

warm-core systems with high pressure aloft

What % of tropical disturbances die out before ever evolving into more powerful systems?

more then 90%

The tropical disturbances that affect affect the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and the Americas, mostly form over:

western Africa, south of the Sahara desert

Over the Indian Ocean the strongest tropical storms are called:

cyclones

This region has the highest average number of hurricanes per year:

Western Pacific

Of the following regions, this one receives the smallest average annual number of hurricanes:

Northern Indian Ocean.

This region does not spawn any tropical storms:

Southern Hemisphere Atlantic Ocean.

This is hurricane season in Australia:

January to March.

Hurricanes:

have sustained wind speeds above 74 miles per hour.

Hurricanes gain most of their energy from:

latent heat released by condensation.

Hurricanes:

contain numerous thunderstorms arranged in a pinwheel formation.

A hurricane typically:

has temperatures near its center that are much higher than surrounding temperatures.

The eye of a hurricane has all of the following characteristics, except:

an average passage time of 5-10 minutes.

The eye wall of a hurricane has all of the following characteristics, except:

moderate winds

Tropical disturbances are most likely to form:

through the actions of easterly waves

The second-least intense type of tropical weather disturbance is the:

tropical depression

The most important condition for the formation of a hurricane is:

a deep surface layer of warm ocean water.

Once formed, a hurricane:

is self-propagating.

Atlantic hurricanes:

can backtrack along a previously traveled path.

Upon reaching the east coast of North America, tropical storms and hurricanes are most likely to move in this general direction:

North

Eastern Pacific hurricanes:

are weakened by the cold waters of the California current

A hurricane's greatest threat to life and property along coasts comes from:

flooding from storm surge and heavy rain

Storm surges are most intense:

on the right side of the hurricane.

Hurricane warnings:

are issued with an eye toward balancing the economic costs of preparing for a hurricane versus the probability the hurricane will actually hit the projected target area.

On the Saffir-Simpson scale:

the pressure of the hurricane decreases as the category number increases.

In a hurricane, most fatalities occur from: ______

the storm surge.

Choose the answer that places the hurricane at its proper position with respect to overall storm size:

mid-latitude cyclone, hurricane, thunderstorm, tornado

A hurricane is almost symmetric (round) in shape because: a hurricane has only warm air.

a hurricane has only warm air.

Horizontal air flow in a hurricane is: counter-clockwise at the surface, clockwise aloft.

counter-clockwise at the surface, clockwise aloft.

An easterly wave is: a favorable area for hurricane development.

a favorable area for hurricane development.

The primary over-riding requirement for hurricane development is: water that is at least 27°C (80°F)

water that is at least 27°C (80°F)

Hurricane paths (tracks):

can be highly erratic and hard to predict.

The driving force of all hurricanes is:

the release of latent heat.

The wind speed of a hurricane (in the northern hemisphere) is greatest:

on the right-hand side of the storm.

Tornadoes most often form in the ________ of a hurricane (in the northern hemisphere).

Northeast quadrant

The reason almost all hurricanes occur in the equatorial regions of the earth is because:

it has the largest source of warm water.

Hurricanes lose strength when they:

move over cooler water. And move over land.

Hurricane storm surges are most destructive during:

high tide.

Most hurricanes in the North Atlantic Ocean begin as:

an easterly wave.

Sea-level pressure near the center of a typical hurricane is:

950 mb

The most dangerous aspect to inland areas from hurricane landfall is:

flash flooding from heavy rain.

Which of the following exhibits "banding" in a hurricane?

rainfall intensity

A shrinking hurricane eye generally means:

an intensifying hurricane.

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