|Acculturation||adapting to a new culture|
|assimilation||members of a group are ABSORBED into a culture. The group is willing or forced to accept the new culture and give up their original culture|
|Marginalization||Groups are excluded from society based on being poor, uneducated, and foreign. Basically coming here and doing nothing to become American.|
|Affective Filter||a barrier that allows information to get through to an english language learner. The higher the filter the more stuff they don't get. The lower the filter, the less anxiety and more understanding they have.|
|Assimilation||Becoming like members of a new culture- giving up their entire culture.|
|Jim Cummins||BICS and CALP- two different time periods where language is acquired. BICS- basic interpersonal communication skills happen in 1-2 years. This is informal language that allows them to survive every day stuff like living here. CALP is the Cognitiive acadmenic language proficiency and happen in 5-7 years. This allows them to learn academic things pertaining to literacy and academic achievement.|
|Noam Chompsky||MIT Linguistics Professor. He created the theory of Generative Grammar. LAD or Language acquisition device. He thinks language occurs in the brain and can be learned by anyone.|
|Cognates||True Cognates- Rodeo and Rodeo... spelled the same in both languages and have the same meaning|
Partial Cognates-Fragrance and Fragrancia -word in other language is similar spelling but have the same meaning
False Cognate- emarrassed and embarrazada (pregnant) words seem the same but have two very different meanings
|Comprehensible input||Language that is understood by the learner. They hear bla bla bla bathroom bla bla bla hallway bla bla bla go now.|
|Surface Culture||Culture that can be seen...language, clothing, food, customs, decor|
|Deep Culture||Below the surface culture- customs and values and behavior|
|Connotation||implying what a word means|
|Denotation||The literal meaning of a word|
|Discourse||continuous stretch of speech or written text|
|discourse analysis||analyzing written or spoken language|
|ELPS||English language proficiency standards- The more you use, the better (like a 5 legged chair) learning strategies, listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Scaffolding- I do, you do, we do! :o)|
|Stephen Krashen||i+1...the input hypothesis. You have to go one level above thier understanding for them to acquire language. Student will acquire the language by just being there.|
1. Comprehensible input- learners will acquire language given the appropriate input
2. Affective Filter- lower it in the classroom
3.Natural Order- there is a predictable sequence to language
4. Motivation- They want to belong to their new community, that is why they learn the langugae
5. Monitor Hypothesis- It takes a long time but they will eventually be able to correct their grammar and language mistakes in oral and written language.
|Formal Assessment||MAP, STAAR- Tests must have validity and reliability. Validity is that the items closely reflect the skills being measured. Reliability is that it gives similar results if taken over and over|
|Alternative Assessment||Portfolios, observations, student work samples, checklists, teacher made tests, etc.|
|LAT Test||Linguistically Accomodated Test- Alternative math and reading formal assessments for those who are LEP or ELLs. Simplified language versions of STAAR/TAKS|
|Language Objectives||What the teacher is trying to get the ELL to master: listening, speaking, reading, and writing|
|Language Register||Formal to intimate... the way you talk to people in certain situations|
|Lau vs Nichols||San Fransisco ... The board of Ed. there was sued for "failing to provide equal access of education to chinese speaking students" ... the decision from this case mandates that states must address the unique language needs of the second language learner.|
|Lexicon||ALL of the words known by someone|
|Lexical Ambiguity||when a word has two or more meanings. Ex. pen and pen (pig pen and writing pen)|
|LPAC||Committe of admin, teachers and at least one parent of a LEP student. Recommends appropriate placement of student once they were tested and entered as LEP|
|Morpheme||the smallest linguistic unit- stem, prefix or suffix|
|Morphology||How you put morphemes together to form a word|
|Non LEP||Student who does not meet the criteria to be LEP- meaning they are have tested and they are a fluent english speaker|
|OLPT||Oral Language Proficiency Test- There are three state approved tests- IPT, LAS and Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey. These tests are used for identification/entry and exit|
|Jean Piaget||Frenchie guy...Constructivsm. Learning is a result of social interaction. Brain learns when ready. Kids need to explore and discover to learn language. THEY NEED INTERACTION!|
|Skinner||Behaviroism- The brain is a BLANK SLATE. Language is learned by habit and that ELLs will imitate and repeat to learn language|
|Phonetics||The study of sounds in human speech. Not all languages have the same phonemes, this is a problem for some students|
|PLDs||What you use in TELPAS to rate a kiddo|
|Realia||bringing in stuff to the classroom that represents real stuff... so ELLs can have more hands on learning|
|Sheltered Instruction||Transition or Bridge classes. ELLs get the same instruction and cover the same TEKS as non ELLs, but they are given adaptations for language components... lots of pictures and visuals, etc.|
|syntax||How words are constructed for meaning and how sentences relate to eachother|
|Leo Vygotsky||Russian guy... related language to thinking. ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT- The level of development is higher when they interact with other people and are social|
|Pragmatics||sarcasm, politically correct language... how teenagers talk. the meaning of what someone is saying depends on the context they are saying it in|
|Code Switching||When they switch back and forth from their language to english if they don't know a word or phrase in English. This is a GOOD thing!|
|SIOP Model||Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol- attention to background knowledge, interaction, meaningful activities etc. to imporove ACADEMIC language|
|CALLA Model|| Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (Chamot and O'Malley came up with this)|
Teaching students their own learning strategies so they can teach themselves along the way.
|Bilingual Education||if district has 20 or more LEP students who speak the same language in the same grade, they have to have a bilingual program for that language.|
|ESL Education||If district has even ONE LEP student, they have to provide a program for that child.|
|How fast should they advance?||If goals are being reached appropriately, students that are ELLs should be growing one level per year based on TELPAS... example beginner should grow to intermediate by end of the the year, etc.|
|LPAC and ARD committee||These are different because LPAC deals with ELLs and ARDs deal with Sped kiddos... they arent SPED and ESL unless they qualify for both. Placement for ESL should happen within 4 weeks of testing.|
|Dual Language Education||A new study by Thomas and Collier that says that programs that assist students to fully reach the 50th percentile in L1 and L2 in all subjects and maintain that level until graduation has fewer dropouts... there are two different models of this perfect program... the One Way Model and the Two way Model. |
One way Model- Teacher teaches in 2 languages- all kids are ESL
Two way Model- Teacher teaches in 2 languages-
half are native english speakers, half are ELLs
They say this is BETTER THAN PULLOUT! it is PUSH IN
|There are five main English Language Learner (ELL) programs that use the student's native language while he is learning English||TRANSITIONAL BILINGUAL uses the native language in core academic subjects. However, the goal is to phase into English-only instruction as quickly as possible. |
DEVELOPMENTAL BILINGUAL uses the native language in core academic subjects throughout elementary school. Sometimes the program extends into middle and high school even after the student has been classified proficient in English.
In TWO-WAY IMMERSION the students are from similar backgrounds, with about half the class speaking the native language and the other half speaking both. Instruction is about evenly split between English and the native language.
In some cases, the native language is used in a SUPPORT ROLE ONLY. Instruction is entirely in English with a bilingual paraprofessional available to translate vocabulary, explain lessons and clarify confusing assignments.
NEWCOMER programs are usually reserved for recent U.S. arrivals. Instruction is in the native language and students are also helped to acclimate to their new environment.
|Describe methods used to teach English as a Second Language||Basic interpersonal communication skills encompass two different and distinct styles of communication. Context-embedded communication uses visual and vocal props to help the student understand what is being said. Pictures and other objects graphically explain and demonstrate. The speaker's gestures and tone of voice also help. Context-reduced communication doesn't have visual cues, so the student must rely on competency and fluency to understand. Phone conversations don't allow the listener to see the speaker, so visual aides are missing. Reading a note without pictorial guides may make it difficult for the student to understand the written words.|
The three methods most commonly used to teach English as a Second Language (ESL) are grammar-based, communication-based and content-based. Grammar-based teaches students the rules: structure, function and vocabulary. Emphasis is on the why and how. Communication-based teaches how to use English in everyday, realistic situations. It emphasizes practical conversational usage. Content-based teaches grammar and vocabulary, and uses written assignments to practice these skills. It emphasizes an integrated approach to learning English.
|continuum of learning theory||The Continuum of Learning theory outlines predictable steps when learning a new language. No matter what the characteristics of the person or the subject matter being presented, teachers will encounter these general levels of mastery.|
The SILENT/RECEPTIVE OR PREPRODUCTION stage can last from a few hours to six months. Students usually don't say much and communicate using pictures, pointing and gestures.
In the EARLY PRODUCTION stage students use one and two word phrases. They indicate understanding with yes/no and who/what/where questions. This stage can last six months.
The SPEECH EMERGENCE stage may last a year. Students use short sentences and begin to ask simple questions. Grammatical errors may make communication challenging.
In the INTERMEDIATE LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY stage students begin to make complex statements, share thoughts and opinions and speak more often. This may last a year or more.
The ADVANCED LEARNING PROFICIENCY stage lasts five to seven years. Students have acquired a substantial vocabulary and are capable of participating fully in classroom activities and discussions.
|key principles of language acquisition||There are four key concepts teachers in mainstream classrooms can use to help English Language Learners (EEL) acquire proficiency in both written and spoken English.|
INCREASE COMPREHENSIBILITY of the content of lesson plans and activities by using pictures, props, gestures and voice variations to explain and demonstrate the subject. Use short sentences and avoid slang and idioms. Build on the language concepts the student already has.
ENCOURAGE INTERACTION by asking questions and assigning group activities (only with students willing and able to respond to the unique requirements). This provides the ELL student with lots of opportunities to practice what he knows and increase his confidence, so he is able to learn more effectively.
INCREASE THINKING AND STUDY SKILLS by asking thought-provoking questions and assigning complex topics for research projects. Establish and expect the same high standards from every student.
USE THE NATIVE LANGUAGE to increase understanding and comprehension. Translating questions and assignments into the student's native language clarifies instructions and helps him understand what is expected.
|Define fluency and describe ways to determine an English Language Learner's level||Fluency is the ability to read and comprehend the written word accurately and quickly. Fluent readers recognize words and expressions and understand their meaning. When reading out loud, their presentation is smooth, expressive and effortless. Fluent readers don't focus on the words; they concentrate on the meaning. They make connections between knowledge they already have and ideas and concepts discovered in the new information. A student who is a good reader in his native language will be a good reader in English. However, when assessing an English language learner's level of competency, just because he "sounds" good, it doesn't necessarily follow that he understands the meaning in the message. It is important to ask open-ended questions about the text to determine his comprehension level. If the student doesn't understand what he is reading, it doesn't matter how fast he says the words: it is meaningless gibberish. A word of caution: be careful not to conclude that the student struggling with reading English has a learning disability; it may just be necessary to find other means to test his general knowledge.|
|Individual Assessments- Advantages vs. Disadvantages||ADVANTAGES: Individual assessments are easily understood by students and parents. Self-referenced standards provide feedback about the student's strengths and weaknesses. They can help motivate him to take more responsibility for his learning. Students sometimes set personal goals. Individual assessments help them measure their success. They provide teachers insight into special help the student might need. |
DISADVANTAGES: Individual assessment can create a competitive environment in which some students are unable to compete. It makes it difficult to evaluate students' ability to work with a team and judge their interaction with others. Individual assessments also require a great deal of time to complete fairly and accurately.