All Exam Review Guide

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Semester 2

Stock Market Crashes, October 1929

Black Tuesday

What were two signs of weakness?

Basic Industry failing but stock market booming, People borrowing money to play the stock market

What was the unemployment rate in 1933?

25%

What was the Bubble in the Stock Market?

Price/Earnings Index
Rising Equity Prices/Falling Fundamentals
Greater Fool Theory
Buying on Margin

People rush to get money from banks but they don't have it and they close down

Run on the banks

CCC

Civilian Conservation Corps

WPA

Works Progress Administration

NRA

National Recovery Administration

PWA

Public Works Administration

TVA

Tennessee Valley Authority

Obtuse

An angle with a measure between 90º and 180º.

Perpendicular

Two lines that intersect to form four congruent angles.

Complementary

Two angles whose measures has a sum of 90°.

Supplementary

Two angles whose measures has a sum of 180º.

Vertical

The angles opposite each other when two lines intersect to form four angles.

Alternate Interior

One of two pairs of angles formed when a transversal intersects two lines.

Parallel

Two lines that do not meet.

Scalene

No sides are congruent on a triangle. (no sides have the same measure)

Isosceles

At least two sides are congruent on a triangle. (two sides have the same measure)

Equilateral

All sides are congruent on a triangle. (all sides have the same measure)

Polygon

A closed figure consisting of segments joined at their endpoints.

Proportion

A statement of equality to two ratios

Percent

A ratio of a number to 100.

Quadrants

The places where the x- and y-axes are divided into in the coordinate plane.

Y-intercept

The Y-coordinate of a point where a graph crosses the Y-axis.

Pythagorean Theory

A2 + B2 = C2

Addend

The number that is being added to the coefficient. 3x + 2, 2 is the ________.

Associative Property

(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)

Commutative Property

a + b = b + a

Zero Property

a + 0 = a
a - 0 = a
a - a = 0

Identity Property

a X 1 = a
a ÷ 1 = a
a ÷ a = 1

Distributive Property

a X (b + x) = (a X b) + (a X c)

Coefficient

The numbers preceding the powers of the variable. 3x + 2, 3 is the ____________.

Combination

An arrangement of a group of things in which order does not matter.

Exponent

A number indicating how many times the base is used as a factor.

Equation

A mathematical sentence with an equals sign to indicate that two expressions name the same number. Ex. 3x + 2 = 14.

Difference

The answer to a subtraction problem.

Linear Equation

A line consisting of all points whose coordinates satisfy the equation.

Permutation

An arrangement of a group of things in a particular order.

Probability

The ratio of the number of outcomes favoring an event to the total number of possible outcomes.

Product

The answer to a multiplication problem.

Sum

The answer to an addition problem.

Quotient

The answer to a division problem.

Slope

The steepness of a line; that is, of the change in the y-coordinate to the change in the x-coordinate when moving from one point on a line to another point.

Surface Area

The total area of a solid. Lateral area plus area of the bases.

Reciprocal

Two products whose product is one.

Volume

A measure of the space occupied by a solid. Base area X height.

Cross Products Property

If a is to b as c is to d then ad = bc. It allows you to do cross multiplication.

Inverse Property

a + -a = 0

Circumference of a circle

C= πd
or C=2πr

Area of rectangle

A= lw

Area of a triangle

1/2 bh

Area of a Parallelogram

A=bh

Area of a Trapezoid

A=1/2(b1 + b2)h

Area of a circle

A= πr2

Total surface area of a prism

A= lateral area+ surface area

Lateral area of a prism

Perimeter of base * height

Volume of a prism

V= bh

Volume of Cylinder

v=πr2h

Lateral area of a cylinder

2πrh

totalSurface Area of a Cylinder

2πrh +2πr2

What are the 8 taxa? (put a dash between, biggest to smallest)

Domain-Kingdom-Phylum-Class-Order-Family-Genus-Species

What are the 6 kingdoms?

Protista-Animalia-Plantae-Fungi-Archaeabacteria-Eubacteria

Archabacteria

Prokaryote, (only unicellular), Autotroph or heterotrophs, some have a cell wall, live in extreme environments

Eubacteria

Prokaryote, unicellular, autotrophs or heterotrophs, some have cell wall (peptidoglycogen) Producers, decomposers, parasites

Protista

Eukaryotes, unicellular or multicellular, Producers, consumers, decomposers, some have cell walls, (Plant Like, Animal Like, Fungi Like)

Fungi

Eukaryote, Multicellular and unicellular, heterotrophic, cell walls (chitin) decomposer

Plantae

Eukaryote, Multicellular, Autotrophs, Producers, cell walls (cellulose)

Animalia

Eukaryote, multicellular, heterotrophs, consumers, no cell walls

Are viruses living?

No

Lytic Cycle

Attachment-Injection-Production-Assembly-Release

What makes up a virus?

Genetic material inside a protein coat

Lysogenic Cycle

Attachment-Injection-(Virus stays dormant in cell until specific time)

What are 3 naming groups of bacteria?

Diplo-Strepto-Staphylo

Diplo

2 cells

Strepto

Chains of cells

Staphylo

Clusters of cells

What are the 3 shapes of bacteria

Coccus, Bacillus, Spirillum

Coccus

round shaped

Bacillus

rod shaped

Spirillum

spiral shaped

What are two ways bacteria get food?

Photosynthesis and Chemosynthesis

What are the two ways bacteria reproduce?

Binary Fission (1) and Conjugation (2)

What are the protist groups?

Protozoans, Algae, Water Molds

What are the characteristics that all protists share?

Eukaryotes
Moist Environment
Organisms that cannot be classified as Plants, Animals or Fungi
Diverse
Unicellular and Multicellular
Heterotrophs and Autotrophs
Some move to get food

What are the characteristics that all fungi share?

Eukaryotes
Cell Walls made of Chitin
Heterotrophs
Use spores to reproduce

The main structure in fungi is the __________

Hyphae

How do fungi get food?

Hyphae go into food source
Digestive Enzymes ooze out from Hyphae
Enzymes break down food into smaller pieces
Absorbed by Hyphae

What are the 3 main groups of fungi?

Club, Sac, Zygote

What are the 2 ways fungi reproduce?

Spores or two hyphae grow together

What is the fungi job in the environment?

Environmental Recycling

What is a habitat?

A place where an organism can live, grow and reproduce

Abiotic Factor

Nonliving parts of an environment

Biotic Factor

Living parts of an environment

Levels of Organization

Organism-Species-Population-Commutity-Ecosystem

Species

A group of organisms that can reproduce together

Population

All members of a species living in a specific area

Community

All the different species that live in a specific area

Ecosystem

All the abiotic and biotic factors in a specific area

Ecology

The study of how organisms interact in an environment

Limiting Factor

A factor that limits population growth in an area

What are the three limiting factors?

Food/Water, Space, Climate

Niche

An organisms role or job in an environment

What is the Predator-Prey Relationship

When prey population is high, predators overkill them and then the prey population decreases, then predators have not as much food so they may die or go hungry, then the prey population sky rockets

Competition

The struggle between two species that need the same resources

What are the three types of symbiosis?

Mutualism, Commensalism, Parasitism

What is succession?

the regrowing of plants after a natural disaster

What are the three types of consumers?

Primary, Secondary, Tertiary

What is the 10% rule?

Only 10% of the suns energy can be passed through organisms

Vegetation, Canopy, Lots of rain, trees, plants, animals, warm all year

Rainforest

Salty Coastal Waters, open waters and deep waters, many zones

Marine

Less then 25 cm of rain, long cold winters, very small trees and plants, cold

Tundra

Prairie, lots of grass, big herbivores (elephants, giraffes)

Grassland

Lakes, Streams, Ponds

Freshwater

300 cm of rain, huge trees, pacific northwest

Temperate Forest

Can be hot or cold, no rain, dry, cactus

Desert

All four seasons, trees lose leaves in winter, animals hibernate

Deciduous Forest

Transition between Salt and Freshwater, marshes/wetlands

Estuary

Northern Dense Forests, Taiga

Boreal Forest

Breathing

Respiratory

Waste

Excretory

Food Circling

Digestive

Heart/Blood

Circulatory

Skin/Nails/Hair

Integumentary

Brain

Nervous

Bones

Skeletal

Muscles

Muscular

Germ Fighting

Immune

Hoard

To save and put away, secretly

Ensue

To follow, to come as a result

Inundate

Cover with water, to load an excessive amount of something

Placate

To stop from being angry, to calm

Recede

To move back or drop to a lower level, to become fainter

Ruthless

Showing no mercy

Avert

To turn away, to keep from happening

Plight

A difficult or dangerous situation

Assert

To say firmly

Bleak

Without much hope, cold and dreary

Blithe

Cheerful, Carefree

Dwindle

To keep on becoming less

Nimble

Quick and Agile

Lethal

Capable of causing death

Ponderous

Heavy or slow moving

Vigilant

Watchful, ready for danger

Clamber

To climb awkwardly

Tedious

Seeming to go on for a long time, boring

Fathom

A length of six feet

Pique

To arouse or excite

Probe

To poke or prod, to examine closely

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