Hormones

Created by cfreder1 

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hGH

Peptide hormone = made in the rough ER, sent to the ER lumen, then the Golgi
Water soluble; acts on 2nd messenger system of cell membrane
Anterior pituitary
growth of nearly all cells

ACTH

Peptide hormone = made in the rough ER, sent to the ER lumen, then the golgi
Water soluble = acts on 2nd messenger cAMP system
stimulates adrenal cortex to release cortisol
Stimulated by stress

FSH

Peptide hormone
Anterior pituitary
growth of follicles in females = FSH stimulates growth of granulosa cells, which secrete zona pellucida
Sperm production in males = stimulate sertoli cells which surround the spermatocyte/spermatid
Inhibited by "inhibin" = peptide hormone

LH

Peptide Hormone
Anterior pituitary
stimulates estrogen (positive feedback in LH surge) and testosterone (from leydig cells) secretion
Stimulate "leydig cells" to release testosterone = primary androgen
Usually inhibited by estradiol; just before ovulation, spike in estradiol = luteal surge, causes ovulation

TSH

Peptide Hormone
Anterior Pituitary
Stimulates release of T3 and T4 in thyroid
uses 2nd messenger cAMP system
Negative feedback effect on via T3 and T4

Prolactin

Peptide Hormone
Anterior pituitary
promotes milk production
Hypothalamus stimulates all other ant. pit. hormones but normally inhibits release of this

Oxytocin

Peptide Hormone
Posterior pituitary
milk ejection
uterine contraction

ADH

Peptide Hormone
Posterior pituitary
"vasopressin"
water absorption by the kidney = collecting ducts become permeable to water = reduces urine, concentrates urine
Increases BP
Coffee and Beer block this = more urine

Aldosterone

Steroid hormone
Released from Adrenal Cortex
mineral corticoid = affects electrolyte balance in blood
Reduces Na excretion (increases Na reabsorption)
Increases K excretion (increases K secretion)
Eventual increase in BP

Cortisol

Steroid Hormone
Released from adrenal cortex upon stimulation by ACTH
Increases blood glucose levels via stimulation of gluconeogenesis in liver
Stress hormone
Decreases immune system

epinephrine and norepinephrine

Tyrosine derivative hormone
Catecholamines = releases from adrenal medulla
Simulates sympathetic actions = also considered stress hormones
Unlike T3/T4, are water soluble and act through 2nd messenger cAMP system on cell membrane (like peptide)

T3/T4

Tyrosine derivatives
Released from thyroid gland
Lipid soluble, carried by plasma proteins in blood. Act in the nucleus of their effectors
increases basal metabolic rate

calcitonin

Peptide hormone
Released by thyroid gland
lowers blood calcium (increases bone mass)
Decreases osteoclast activity
OsteoClast = breaKs bone
OsteoBlast = builds bone

PTH (parathyroid hormone)

Peptide hormone
Releases by parathyroid glands
raises blood calcium (decreases bone mass)
Osteocyte absorption of calcium from bone
Stimulates Osteoclasts = breaks bones
Regulated by Ca+ ion concentration in blood

Insulin

Peptide Hormone
Released by pancreas (B-cells)
Promotes entry of glucose into cells = decreases blood glucose level
Released when blood levels of carbs/proteins get high
Binds to a membrane receptor = cascade of rxns

Glucagon

Peptide Hormone
Released by pancreas (a-cells)
increases glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis = increases blood glucose level
Via 2nd messenger cAMP system

estrogens

Steroid hormone = chemically similar to cholesterol
Formed in the smooth ER and mitochondria
Gonadal hormone
Also produced by placenta
growth of mother sex organs
Estradiol = type of estrogen; causes LH surge
Secreted by Corpus Luteum throughout pregnancy

Progesterone

Steroid hormone = chemically similar to cholesterol
formed in the smooth ER and mitochondria
gonadal hormone
Also secreted by placenta and corpus luteum
Prepares and maintains uterus for pregnancy = sloughing of uterine wall

testosterone

Steroid hormone = chemically similar to cholesterol
formed in the smooth ER and mitochondria
gonadal hormone
Primary androgen (male sex hormone)
Released by Leydig cells in the interstitium between the seminiferous tubules
secondary sex characteristics
closing of epiphyseal plates (end of puberty growth spurt)

HCG

Peptide hormone
Secreted by the egg upon implantation of sperm
stimulates corpus luteum to grow and release estrogen and progesterone
1st sign of pregnancy = presence in urine

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