Stevens History Vocab. Spring Exam

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THIS IS EVERY SINGLE VOCAB WORD SHE POSTED-if you have corrections/deeply feel that somehting needs to be added to a word email me

Paleolithic

also known as the "old stone age"
lasted from 2,500,000 BCE- 10,000 BCE
called the stone age because they used stone tools
people were all nomadic hunter-gatherers

Neolithic

called the "new stone age"
lasted from c. 10,000 BCE- 4,000 BCE
started using tools made of metal
crops and farming introduced
ended when they discover writing, bronze, and cities develop (around 4,000 BCE, considered the start of civilization)
turning point in prehistory when people learned how to raise crops and cattle, then were able to settle down
Çatal Hüyük:
first real village
because of crops, not everyone had to farm so more specialized jobs were created
a collection of mud huts with openings in the roof which is where you got in

Kemet

white(black) land that was flooded/farmed

deshret

the red land (desert)

delta

triangle area where Nile empties into Agean sea

nilometer

used by priests to measure how high Nile flood was

Lower egypt

northern Egypt

upper egypt

south egypt, it is upstream (Nile flows North)

dynasty

group of ruler all from same family

predynastic

before dynasties were established,

inundation

a period where the Nile would flood, leaving soil richer and plants growing well. July through September.

nome

town made up of a few villages in Egypt

nomarch

ruler of a nome

narmer pallete

Narmer smiting someone of front and on back there is a kohl

hieroglyphs

pictures basically used as writing egypt

rosetta stone

stone that has 3 languages on it (Greek, Demoic, Hieroglyph)

cartouche

name wrapped in sacred rope, suppose to prevent name from being used in curses

papyrus

paper in egypt, A material prepared in ancient Egypt from the pithy stem of a water plant,

smiting posture

when you are standing over a person kneeling, both facing same direction

ma'at

"the state of natural and divine order." Makes it possible not to be in chaos, considered to be the status quo in Egypt

pharaoh

ruler of Ancient Egypt

mastaba

rectangle tomb structure, used originally but then pharaohs used pyramids,

Memphis

first capital of Egypt, used throughout Old Kingdom

vizier

chief administrator of the two lands, appointed by a Pharaoh. IN new kingdom was chosen for military prowess.

two lands

the red and white land, Narmer united

double crown

the red and white crown jammed together, created by Narmer

middle kingdom

the second of the 3 kingdoms in egypt, Dynasties 11-14, fell to Hyksos

Nubia

area south of Egypt

cataracts

river rapids that are hard to pass with boats which create trading difficulties.

budget burials

came in middle kingdom with democratization of afterlife, put spells on coffin instead of walls of mastaba

coffin text

text put on coffin in Egypt, used in budget burial where text was not of mastaba

composite bow

bow developed in new kingdom, allowed for much farther/faster arrow shooting, technology stolen from Hyksos

aspective view

drawings done from best aspect of something, birdeye view of lake but still shows fish sideways

succession

when one person (usually a son) is planned to be the next ruler

karnak temple

temple near thebes, cult temple which means it is on east of nile

coregent

the son of the ruler who acted as coruler.

instruction

a piece of advice given created by Amenemhat (he said to his son after he was assassinated telling him to beware of other people, written as if he had already died, written by people after him who knew what he would have said)

Scribes

professional people to read and write,in Egypt almost exclusively priests

Hyksos

people who came in Egypt as mercenaries but then took over, caused 2nd intermediate period

war chariot

Egyptian ____ is swift and light but hittite______ is able to crash into enemy life

imperialism

a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force

2nd intermediate period

period when Hyksos had control of lower Egypt, Ahmose ended it

Amun-RA

new god developed in New kingdom, (not by Akhenaten), seen as the high god

mitanni

A land that Egypt had some issues with, Akhenaton married a ______ princess to solidify peace (her name is Nerfertitti)

battle of megiddo

fought by Thutmose, after he wins he takes the mitanni princes and raises them in Egypt and then sends them back as puppets for him

bureaucracy

when important decisions are made by offcial, not elected representatives

Aten

new god Akhenaten made, monotheistic religion's god, seen as sun disc god

negative confession

ritual in which you would say a series of statements, each promising a sin hadn't been comitted. (example: I did not kill anybody)

Akhetaten

new capital of egypt under Akhenaten, with own style of art and temples, parallel to Contantinople

cult temple

temples on east of Nile used for priests

memorial temple

on west of Nile, used to take offerings, body is not there to prevent tomb robbing

ba

essence of a person's personality, depicted as human headed bird, returns to tomb at night after day of flying

ka

life force of a person or god, requires offerings

akh

ghost capable of interacting with living

Temple of Luxor

cult temple, near karnak

valley of kings

hidden tombs behind mountains where bodies were to prevent tomb raiding, in Egypt

hittites

people in the coast to northeast of traditional egypt, Egypt fights them

battle of kadesh

battle lead by Ramses II for Egypt, ends up a draw with Hittites but Ramses says he won and makes a picture of him with like 40 arms shooting arrows to win

treaty of kadesh

treaty made by Ramses ending war with Hitties

abu simbel

where Ramses II built a memorial to himself

Sea people

the Philistines, they force Egypt to contract but Rames III defeats them once

Yangshao culture

settled agricultural society
example: Banpo village
houses and graves were grouped in ways thought to reflect extended families
differences in wealth even within family
Secondary burial:
Not warlike:
used the "snake" method for pottery
pottery is red because of clay available
had proto-writing on pottery, thought to identify who's work it is
lived near Yellow River

Banpo

one of the yangshao cities

longshan culture

lived near yellow river
overlap with Yangshao, though they start later
farther north and east
thick defensive walls
warlike;
settled agricultural society
used potter's wheel
pottery is black because of clay available
used cracked bones

Xia dynasty

mythical kingdom, could be real, but we don't know
oracle bones that proved the Shang dynasty real might also prove the Xia real
responsible for silk, fire, farming, etc.
no archeological evidence to prove their existence
Stories:
Thought to be dated from 2205-1766 BCE
Founded by Emperor Yu- organized flood control and irrigation projects
Last Emperor was Jie- "evil"
One emperor said to have made fire

shang

round the same time as Egypt's New Kingdom (1500-1046 BCE)
Capitol is near modern Anyang, north of the Yellow River
Earliest form of Chinese writing
Had walled cities and silk
Bronze working
Thought to be legendary, until discovery of oracle bones and bronze artifacts(Han historians had provided a list of the ______ kings, but nobody believed them due to no actual evidence)

allied chieftains

Certain lands outside Shang heartland were ruled by tribal chieftans without blood ties to the Shang
The Shang influenced their descisions through intimidation and gift-giving
These areas were not directly under Shang control; Chieftans could say no
Loyalties of the tribes often shifted; enemies were denoted with the suffix -fang

estate holders

gained the majority of the land's income in return for giving taxes and soldiers to the king
ere members of the royal family, who governed the estates for the king
In China

cowry shells

Shang currency
imitations of _____ were also used

oracle bones

"dragon bones"; answered questions to the gods after being interpreted by the priests

clan

A group of people who claim descent from a common ancestor; as small as an extended family or as large as a tribe in china

chinese characters

in china, each symbol stands for one word

zi clan

the Shang king always belonged to the _____
- includes extended family members

zhou dynasty

government Structured similarly to Shang in that it had a king and estate holders under him
viewed as a perfect time by the later Confucians
small expansions took the borders to the eastern sea

centralized

concentrated (control of an activity or organization) under a single authority

decentralized

transfer (authority) from central to local government

Tian

shang heaven, the dwelling place of the gods and ancestors

mandate of heaven

justified rule; made king "Son of Heaven"; said the leader was approved by the gods; could be lost or gained, in china

son of heaven

title of the king if he had the Mandate; claims that king doesn't only rule on earth, but as a connection from the gods to the people, china

dynastic cycle

the pattern of a bad dynasty followed by a good one; the losing and gaining of the Mandate

hierarchy

a system of ranking people or things

well -field system

Each family was given an outer private square, which they farmed themselves. The lord owned the middle square, but the people living in the surrounding squares farmed his square. The lord could own several plots of land like this, so they could have several inner squares. made in western Zhou

collar harness

made it easier to use animals to pull plows and heavy loads in warring states

fallow fields

improved crop quality, only farm 1/2 of land each year so part of it gets super fertile for next year

Eastern Zhou period

split into warring states and Spring and Autumn

spring and autumn

decentralization, the states were competing against each other
estate holders=hereditary
lords seize land from kings
Confucius lived during this period
Zhou was only a religous leader (no military or poltiical power for him)

signal lights

tell lords to rush to defend the king
Bao Si thought it was funny watching everybody freak out
king you was last western zhou king because he lit _____ but nobody came since he always faked attack and lit them for Bao Si

hegemon

an overlord chosen to lead during crisis, military leader who centralized leadership, in China

concubine

a mistress; often a man would have many; sons could not inherit title, in China

piece mold method

Make a clay version of the final product
Cover the clay version with more clay
Carefully cut away the outer clay in sections
Reassemble the mold & add molten bronze
Remove reusable mold
Used in Shang

lost wax method

-Fashion the core
-Cover with wax in shape of final product
-Cover with clay
-Pour in molten bronze and the wax would rise and be "lost" out of the top
-Break off outer mold and remove
used in Spring and Autumn

silkworms

larvae of a moth, used to make silk

lacquer

plastic in china, light, hard and water resistant

ren

humanity; people who are "forceful, resolute, simple and cautious of speech, confucius virtue

jungzi

gentlemen; young nobles who live honorably, can perform rites and cultivate ren

the dao

the Way; impossible to define; a force or plan for the universe; never acts for a purpose

daodejing

written by Laozi; "Classic Text of the Way and Virtue"; 81 chapters; proverbs

nonaction

do nothing and yet everything will be done"; never a purpose; natural

yin

the weaker element; women; praised

yang

the stronger element; men

Art of War

book written by Sun Wu on war tactics

legalism

thought Confucianism was naive

emphasized strict enforcement of laws
laws should be applied equally to ALL without favoritism (except to king)
innovated by Shi Huangdi, use during Qin dynasty

Great Wall

wall built along China;s northern border, msotly other walls connected, connected by Shi Huang Di

terracotta warriors

built in tomb for Shi huang Di to give power in after life, took 36 years to build,

civil service exam

based on Confucian principles
tested knowledge of Chinese history, philosophy, literature, manners, and language
only 1 of every 3000 passed the _______
those with the top scores received powerful posts in government and financial rewards that enabled them to purchase large amounts of land
those with the lower scores worked in local government overseeing law courts, the census (kept records of how many people there were and how wealthy they are), schools, taxes, etc.
all men could take the exam
people who were poorer had a disadvantage because they could not read or write so there was no way that they could pass
people sought education in order to pass _____

bureaucracy

a large number of officials, usually in a strict rank order; each official has a specific job; Chinese had biggest and longest lasting

civil servants

Bureaucrats- varied dramatically in status based on their rank and responsibilities, in China

silk road

long road, allowed buddhism to enter china due to trade of silk, more trade on this during han dynasty

seed drill

new farm tool in China used to sow and plant seeds at the correct depth

seismograph

China, could record Earth's tremors; pole inside an urn, triggers released balls that fell in direction of tremor

acupuncture

treatments to heal illness and relieve pain; thin needles inserted into skin @ certain point, in China

wheel barrow

China innovated used to transport goods

paper

used as armor, kites, and art in China,

buddhism

originated in India, but entered China during the 1st century CE because of trade along the Silk Road
______ taught that suffering could be avoided by pursuing the Middle Way and avoiding attachments

red eyebrows

overthew liu bang, put cinnabus (red metal) on forehead

fars

Persian heartland where the 'Persians' are from- this region never has to pay taxes

assyria

ruled by fear and intimidation
-took hostages to homeland
-punished resistance severely, often making "examples"
-Conquests:
Phoenician homeland (not colonies)
Judah (pays Assyria to not invade, but were still tributary states)
Israel (stopped paying to avoid invasion, but were conquered)
ashur was main god
capital was nineveh

to sack

to pillage or loot after capture

sappers

(dig underneath wall and weaken it-, innovated by Assyria, used in sieging

battering ram

used to break down wall when sieging, innovated by assyria

tribute

money payed from Satrapies to ruler

sparabara

Assyrian archer pair, eventually more people are put behind the shield in front to shoot arrows

siege tactics (in Assyria)

siege tower
battering rams
sappers
all _______ used in Assyria

Medes

descended from nomads who settled in the region
-Military: horse archers, spearmen with wicker shields
-Cyaxares II and Astyages were rulers

Ecbatana

capital of the Medes

Nineveh

capital of the Assyrians

cuneiform

the wedge-shaped characters used in the ancient writing systems such as persia

hanging gardens of Babylon

gardens in Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar built them for his wife from Media, irrigated
foliage would spill over sides of terraces
"hanging plants"
built of mud-brick

Lydia

culture that was near Ionian city states, Croesus lead them, knew about eclipses and had some greek customs

myriad

a unit of 10,000 men used in Persian military

the immortals

10,000 best troops in all of Persia, whenver 1 died he was immediately replaced by the 10,001st best soldier

satrapy

Persian province, parallel to nome/allied chieftain area

satrap

ruler of satrapy, parallel to nomarch,

_____ can tweak things to make governing in his reign better
no universal law codes
each ______ made their own laws
universal taxing system
all s______ spoke Persian but there could be multiple languages in each satrapy
top military and financial officials report to the Great King rather than the _____
Network of spies
Darius reforms takeaway their power

Ionian city states

tried to rebel against Darius like scythians did but failed, greek city states but on coast of Persian/Lydia land

darics

gold coins introduced by Darius

polygamy

when a man has many wives

Susa

one of persia's capitals, royal road went from ______ to Sardis,

royal road

pathed road going from Sardis to Susa, built by Darius

Persepolis

one of Peria's capitals, founded by Darius, had an awesome palace

paradaisia

walled rectangular ornamental gardens , Cyrus started tradition of building them

apadana

square audience hall, part of Palace at persepolis

the eastern stairs represented the people of the empire
the northern stairs were not as good quality
largest and prettiest building of Persepolis
72 columns that were 25 meters tall

canats

fresh water was brought in through these in persian palaces,

water moves by gravity so they would lower them where needed (goes down in a slight slope in order to move the water)
similar to Roman aqueducts

great king

ruler of persia, parallel to emperor/pharaoh/hegemon

ahurmazda

is the good in the cosmic battle between the forces of good and evil, part of Zoroastarianism

avesta

was like the bible, compilation of preaching of Zoroaster

magi

priests in persia who introduced into the faith rituals of dreams, magic, and astrology;

hellenes

what Ancient Greeks called themselves

hellas

what Ancient Greeks called Greece

Aegean Sea

sea that surounds greece

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