Kaplan and Deblij part 1

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almost cumulative.... DEBLIJ chapters 2,3, 6,7, 8, 11, 13, and unit 2 KAPLAN chapters 1, 2, 3

Laws of Migration

Most migration is due to economic causes
Most migration is over a short distance, and often occurs in steps
Long-range migrants usually move to urban areas
Each migration produces a movement in the opposite direction (every action has an equal and opposite reaction)
Rural dwellers are more migratory than urban dwellers
Within their own country females are more migratory than males; Males are more migratory over long distances
Most migrants are adults

Gravity Model

Shows that interaction is proportional to the multiplication of the two populations divided by the distance between them; this phenomenon is distance decay (the effect of distance on cultural or spatial interactions)

Thomas Malthus

(Person)Gave a dystopian view of the future (1798); Food production increases arithmetically, whereas human reproduction increases geometrically (doubling each generation); despite checks on population, there would continue to be starvation.

The Demographic Transition Model

A model used to represent the process of explaining the transformation from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economy. It has 4 definitive stages:
 In stage one (high stationary), pre-industrial society, death rates and birth rates are high and roughly in balance.
 In stage two (early expanding), that of a developing country, the death rates drop rapidly due to improvements in food supply and sanitation, but without a corresponding fall in birth rates this produces an imbalance, resulting in a large increase in population.
 In stage three (late expanding), birth rates fall due to access to contraception, increases in wages, urbanization, a reduction in subsistence agriculture, an increase in the status and education of women, a reduction in the value of children's work, an increase in parental investment in the education of children and other social changes. Population growth slows.
 In stage four (low stationary) there are both low birth rates and low death rates due to the expansion of wealth and technology.
 "Stage five" (hypothetical), birth rates may drop to well below replacement level as has happened in countries like Germany, Italy, and Japan, leading to a shrinking population. This may be a threat to many industries that rely on population growth, and would likely create an economic burden on the shrinking working population.

The Epidemiological Transition

Occurs as a country modernizes. Developments in medicine (e.g., antibiotics such as penicillin), drastically reduces mortality rates and extends life expectancy. Further development and urbanization results in declining fertility rates, and a transition to chronic and degenerative diseases as more likely causes of death. This occurs in three phases:
1. Age of Pestilence and Famine: mortality is high and fluctuating (low population growth); low and variable life expectancy (20 to 40 years)
2. Age of Receding Pandemics: mortality progressively declines; average life expectancy increases steadily (30 to 50 years); population growth begins to be exponential
3. Age of Degenerative and Man-Made Diseases: mortality continues to decline and eventually approaches stability at a relatively low level

The Isolated State Model

Discussed agricultural location as primarily a factor of transportation cost and profit maximization by farmers through his model. For the image to the left - the black dot represents a city; 1 (white) dairy and market gardening; 2 (green) forest for fuel and building materials; 3 (yellow) grains and field crops; 4 (red) ranching; the outer, dark green area represents wilderness where agriculture is not profitable.

Burgess

Created the Concentric Zone Model.
His work is based on bid-rent (the amount that people will pay for the land) (Ex: wealthier families tended to live much further away from the CBD because they could afford automobiles)

The Concentric Zone Model

Structural model of the American central city (based on Chicago in the 1920s); the zones identified are:
1) the central business district (CBD);
2) the transition zone of mixed residential, factory, and commercial use (low residential density);
3) low-class residential homes (the "inner city" with high residential density);
4) better quality middle-class homes (with lower density than the previous zone)
5) upper-class commuters zone (with the lowest density)

Hoyt

(Person) Created the Sector Model

The Sector Model

Improvements in transportation made the Burgess Model more obsolete. Hoyt (the creator of this model) observed that zones expanded outward from the city center along electric trolley lines, railroads, highways, and other transportation arteries; wedge-shaped patterns -- or sectors -- emanating from the CBD and centered on major transportation routes.

Christaller

Created the Central Place Theory (Person)

The Central Place Theory

Designed to explain the spatial distribution of human settlements. Central places are settlements providing services to their surrounding "market areas". The ordering of settlements based on the number and level of services they provide produces a hierarchy. Hierarchies are often complicated because market areas of different-order settlements overlap (shown as solid and broken lines).
The theory relied on two main concepts:
 Threshold - the minimum market needed to bring about the selling of a good or service.
 Range - the maximum distance people will travel to acquire the good or service.
Four generalizations can be made regarding the spacing, size and function of settlements. The greater the size of the central place:
1. the fewer they are in number;
2. the greater the distance between them;
3. the greater the number and range of functions;
4. the greater the number of higher-order services (e.g., arenas, universities, museums, zoos, etc.)

Weber

Created the Least Cost Theory (Person)

The Least Cost Theory

A variable cost analysis emphasizing the motive of manufacturing plants to pursue cost minimization along three areas: 1) transportation, 2) labor, and 3) agglomeration (too much can lead to high rents and wages, circulation problems - and ultimately to deglomeration); in the weight-losing case, firms locate closer to the raw materials to reduce cost (e.g., metal smelting, paper products); in the weight-gaining case, firms locate closer to the market (e.g., bottling, bread products).

Rostow

Introduced the Modernization Model (Person)

The Modernization Model

A liberal model (stating that all states may develop in the sane way); postulates that economic modernization occurs in five basic stages:
1) Traditional society - economy focuses on mostly subsistence or primary-based activities; society is rigid, negatively viewing change
2) Preconditions for takeoff - development of more productive commercial and cash crops, increased investment and technology; social mobility begins as elite promote change
3) Takeoff - a critical mass of resource exploitation, labor, and capital propel the society toward secondary activities with a few leading industries; export-oriented
4) Drive to Maturity - diversification of industries shift to more domestic consumption; rapid development of transportation and social infrastructure (e.g., bridges and schools)
5) Age of Mass Consumption - modernization and urbanization diffuses throughout the country; industrialization dominates, but a rise in tertiary (and quaternary and quinary) activities results; most have disposable income beyond basic needs (e.g., automobiles)

Wallerstein

Introduced the 3 tiered World-Systems Analysis (Person)

The World Systems Analysis

A three-tiered structuralist model (stating that regional disparities are the result of historically derived power relations within the global economic and political system, and therefore cannot be changed easily).

It postulates a "one-world" economic and political framework (not focusing on the independent economies of nation-states). The global division of labor consists of one economy divided between the "core" (most developed countries (MDCs) - e.g., US, UK, Japan) which dominates other countries; the "semi-periphery" (Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs) - e.g., Brazil, China, India) which is dominated (by the core) while at the same time dominating others (the periphery); and the "periphery" (Least Developed Countries (LDCs) - e.g., Congo, Zambia, Haiti) which is dominated due to dependency on the more powerful global economies.

The Multiple Nuclei Model

Based on the idea that people have greater movement due to increased car ownership. This increase of movement reduced the primacy of the CBD and allowed for the specialization of regional centers (e.g., nuclei such as light manufacturing, business parks, residential areas, etc.).

The Peripheral Model

The US urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by transportation nodes (e.g., a beltway or ring road to avoid traffic congestion). The periphery acts as a functional metropolitan complex, not a series of separate CBDs. It represents urban decentralization (with an increase in edge cities) and the US transcendence into a post-industrial society (from predominantly secondary economic activities to tertiary, quaternary, and quinary activities).

Acid rain

a growing environmental peril whereby acidified rainwater severely damages plant and animal life; caused by the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that are released into the atmosphere when coal, oil, and natural gas are burned, especially in major manufacturing zones

Aquifers

subterranean, porous, water-holding rocks that provide millions of wells with steady flows of water

Atmosphere

blanket of gases surrounding the Earth and located soem 350 miles above the Earth's surface

Biodiversity

the total variety of plant and animal species in a particular place; biological diversity

Chlorofluorocarbons

synthetic organic compounds first created in the 1950s and used primarily as refrigerants and as propellants. The role of CFCs in the destruction of the ozone layer led to the signing of an international agreement

Deforestation

The clearing and destruction of forests to harvest wood for consumption, clear land for agricultural uses, and make way for expanding settlement frontiers

Environmental stress

the threat to environmental security by human activity such as atmospheric and groundwater pollution, deforestation, oil spills, and ocean dumping

Glaciations

a period of global cooling during which continental ice sheets and mountain glaciers expand

Global warming

theory that the Earth is gradually warming as a result of an enhanced greenhouse effect in the Earth's atmosphere caused by ever-increasing amounts of carbon dioxide produced by various human activities

Holocene

The current interglaciation period, extending from 10,000 years ago to the present on the geologic time scale

Hydrologic cycle

the system of exchange involving water in its various forms as it continually circulates among the atmosphere, the oceans, and above and below the land surface

Interglaciation

sustained warming phase between glaciations during an ice age

Little Ice Age

temporary but significant cooling period between the fourteenth and nineteenth centuries; accompanied by wide temperature fluctuations, droughts, and storms, causing famines and dislocation

Mass depletions

loss of diversity through a failure to produce new species

Mass extinctions

mass destruction of most species

Montreal Protocol

an international agreement signed in 1987 by 105 countries and the European Community (now the European Union). The protocol called for a reduction in the production and consumption of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) of 50% by 2000. Subsequent meetings in London (1990) and Copenhagen (1992) accelerated the timing of CFC phaseout, and a worldwide complete ban has been in effect since 1996

Oxygen cycle

cycle whereby natural processes and human activity consume atmospheric oxygen and produce carbon dioxide and the Earth's forests and other flora, through photosynthesis, consume carbon dioxide and produce oxygen

Ozone layer

layer in the upper atmosphere located between 30 and 45 kilometers above the Earth's surface where stratospheric ozone is most densely concentrated. The ozone layer acts as a filter for the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays

Pacific Ring of Fire

ocean- girdling zone of crustal instability, volcanism, and earthquakes resulting from the tectonic activity along plate boundaries in the region

Pangea

the primeval supercontinent, hypothesized by Alfred Wegener, that broke apart and formed the continents and oceans as we know them today; consisted of two parts- a northern Laurasia and a southern Gondwana

Photosynthesis

the formation of carbohydrates in living plants from water and carbon dioside, through the action of sunlight on chlorophyll in those plants, including algae

Pleistocene

the most recent epoch of the Late Cenozoic Ice Age, beginning about 1.8 million years ago and marked by as many as 20 glaciations and interglaciations of which the current warm phase, the Holocene epoch, has witnessed the rise of human civilation

Radioactive waste

hazardous-waste-emitting radiation from nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons factories, and nuclear equipment in hospitals and industry

Renewable resources

resources that can regenerate as they are exploited

Sanitary landfills

Disposal sites for non-hazardous solid waste that is spread in layers and compacted to the smallest practical volume. The sites are typically designed with floors made of materials to treat seeping liquids and are covered by soil as the wastes are compacted and deposited into the landfill

Soil erosion

The wearing away of the land surface by wind and moving water

Solid waste

Non-liquid, non-soluable materials ranging from municipal garbage to sewage sludge; agricultural refuse; and mining residues

Toxic waste

hazardous waste causing danger from chemicals and infectious organisms

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the ozone layer

the first international convention aimed at addressing the issue of ozone depletion. Held in 1985, the Vienna Convention was the predecessor to the Montreal Protocol

Wisonconsinian Glaciation

the most recent glacial period of the Pleistocene, enduring about 100,000 years and giving way, beginning about 18,000 years ago, to the current interglacial, the Holocen

activity spaces

the space within which daily activity occurs

arithmetic population density

the population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit

asylum

shelter and protection in one state for refugees from another state

census

a periodic and official count of a country's population

chain migration

pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links

child mortality rate

A figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population

chronic or degenerative diseases

Generally long-lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies.

colonization

physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land

crude birth rate

the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population

crude death rate

The number of deaths per year per thousand people in a population

cyclic movements

Movement - for example, nomadic migration - that has closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally

demographic transition

multistage model, based on Western Europe's experience, of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization. High birth rates and death rates are followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain; this is followed by a convergence of birth rates and death rates at a lower overall level.

deportation

the act of a government sending a migrant out of its country and back to the migrant's home country

distance decay

the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction

dot map

maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as population

doubling time

the time required for a population to double in size

endemic AIDS

a diseases that is particular to a locality or a region

eugenic population policies

government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others

expansive population policies

government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth

explorers

a person examining a region that is unknown to them

forced migration

human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate

genetic or inherited diseases

Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in a human.

genocide

the planned annihilation of a racial, political, or cultural group

gravity model

A mathematical prediction of the interaction of places, the interaction being a function of population size of the respective places and the distance between them

guest workers

legal immigrant who has work visa, usually short term

immigration

the act of a person migrating into a new country or area

immigration laws

laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state

immigration wave

Phenomenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration from one origin to the same destination.

infant mortality rate

A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population.

infectious diseases

diseases that are caused by infecting organisms; they can be passed from person to person.

internal migration

human movement within a nation-state, such as going westward and southward movements in the US

internally displaced persons

People who have been displaced within their own countries and do not cross international borders as they flee.

international migration

human movement involving movement across international boundaries

intervening opportunity

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

islands of development

Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure

kinship links

types of push or pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where family or friends have already found success

laws of migration

developed by British demographer Ernst Ravenstein, 5 laws that predict the flow of migrants

life expectancy

A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live. Normally expressed in the context of a particular state.

megalopolis

terms used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world; formerly used specifically with an uppercase "M" to refer to Boston-Washington multimetropolitan corridor on the northeastern seaboard pf the United States, but now used generically with a lower-case "m" as a synonym for conurbation

migrant labor

a common type of periodic movemetn involving millions of worker in the US and tens of millions of workers worldwide who cross internationl borders in search of employment and become immigrants, in many instances

migration

a change in residence intended to be permanent

military service

another common form of periodic movement involving as many as 10 million US citizens in a given year, including military personnel and their families, who are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty lasting up to several years

natural increase

Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths. Natural increase of a population does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements.

newborn mortality rate

the number of infants who die within the first month of life per 1000 live births

nomadism

movement among a definite set of places.

one child policy

A program established by the Chinese government in 1979 to slow population growth in China.

periodic movements

for example, college attendence or military service- that involves temporary, recurrent relocation

physiological population density

the number of people per unit of area of arable land

population composition

structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education

population density

a measurement of the number of people per given unit of land

population distribution

description of locations on the Earth's surface where populations live

population explosion

the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase

population pyramids

Visual representations of the age and sex composition of a population whereby the percentage of each age group is represented by a horizontal bar the length of which represents its relationship to the total population. The males in each age group are represented to the left of the center line of each horizontal bar. The females in each age group are represented to the right of the center line.

pull factors

positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attact people to new locations from other areas

push factors

negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location

quotas

established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year

refugees

people who have fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country

regional scale

Interations occuring within a region, in a regional setting.

remittances

money migrants send back to family and friends in their home coutnries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer coutnries

repatriation

A refugee or group of refugees returning to their home country, usually with the assistance of government or a non-governmental organization

restrictive population policies

government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase

selective immigration

process to control immigration in which individuals with certain backgrounds are barred from immigrating

stationary population level

the level at which a national population ceases to grow

step migration

Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city.

transhumance

a seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures

voluntary migration movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity

not because they are forced to move

agribusiness

Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.

agricultural hearth

where a certain type of agriculture originates

agriculture

the purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber

animal domestication

genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control

biotechnology

the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments

cereal grains

corn, wheat, rice, and other grasses

Colombian Exchange

the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa

commercial agriculture

term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor fores, and the latest technoloty

desertification

the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert

dispersed settlement pattern

A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages

enclosure

process of taking over and fencing off land once shared by peasant farmers

erosion

condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind

extensive agriculture

consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre

First Agricultural Revolution

dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

new organisms created by altering the genetic material (DNA) of existing organisms; usually in an attempt to remove undesirable or create desirable characteristics in the new organism.

Green Revolution

The development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe.

horticulture

cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes

hunters and gatherers

early people who traveled from place to place, hunting and collecting food

Koppen climactic classification system

developed by Wladimir Koppen, a system for classifying the worlds climates based on temperature and precipitation

livestock ranching

An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.

long-lot survey system

distinct regional approach to land surveying found in the Canadian Maritimes, parts of Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals

luxury crops

Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco

Mediterranean agriculture

Specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails

metes and bounds system

A system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. It is a system that relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features such as streams or trees. Because of the imprecise nature of metes and bounds surveying, the U.S. Land Office Survey abandoned the technique in favor of the rectangular survey system.

monoculture

farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year

organic agriculture

approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs

plant domestication

genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention

plantation agriculture

Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives

primary economic activity

economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment- such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture

primogeniture

system of inheritance from father to eldest son for ownership or possession of land

quaternary economic activity

service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital. Examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services

quinary economic activity

service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill. Examples include scientific research and high-level management

rectangular survey system

Also called the Public Land Survey, the system was used by the US Land Office Survey to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains. The system divides land into a series of rectangular parcels.

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