enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches
flap of connective tissue that closes over the opening to the trachea which prevents food from blocking the air passageways to the lungs
food tube connecting the mouth to the stomach
rhythmic muscle contractions that squeeze food through the esophagus into the stomach
large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food
mixture of stomach fluids and food produced in the stomach by contracting stomach muscles
digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place
gland that produces hormones that regulate blood sugar; produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; and produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid
organ just above the stomach that produces bile
folded projection that increases the surface area of the walls of the small intestine
colon; organ that removes water from the undigested materials that pass through it
organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted
blood-filtering unit in the renal cortex of the kidney
process by which a liquid or gas passes through a filter to remove wastes
small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron; where filtration takes place
cup-shaped structure in the upper end of a nephron that encases the glomerulus
process in which liquid is taken back into a vessel
loop of Henle
section of the nephron tubule that conserves water and minimizes the volume of urine
tube that carries urine from the bladder and releases it from the body
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