a substance that can not be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions.
A substance consisting of two ore more different elements combined in a fixed ratio.
Required by an organism in only small quantities.
The smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element.
A subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge, found in the nucleus of an atom.
an electrically neutral particle found in the nucleus of an atom.
A subatomic particle with a single negative charge. One or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom.
The center of an atom where the protons and neutrons are located.
A unit of measurement used for atoms and subatomic particles/molecules. It is named after John Dalton who helped develop the atomic theory in the 1800s.
The atomic # is made up of protons and written as a subscript to the left of the symbol of the element. Tells us both number of protons and electrons.
Atomic Mass Number
The sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. It's written as a subscript to the left of the symbol on top. (23/11 Na; 11 protons/electrons and 12 neutrons)
When some atoms have more neutrons than protons in the same element and have greater mass. Behave the same in chemical reactions.
When the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy.
Defined as the capacity to cause change such as work.
The energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure.
The different states of potential energy that electrons have in an atom. It's correlated with distance from nucleus
An energy level represented as the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom.
The outermost electrons in the outermost shell.
The outermost shell.
The three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time.
An attraction between two atoms to complete its outer shell, by either sharing or transferring electrons to one another.
Sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms.
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
A pair of shared electrons. H—H
The notation of H—H, represents both atoms and bonding.
Example...H little two. Means two atoms of hydrogen have bonded...
a double covalent bond so when the two atoms form a molecule by sharing two pairs of valence electrons.
The attraction of a particular kidn of atom for the electrons of a covalent bond.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
When two atoms are equally electronegative and the electrons are shared equally.
Polar Covalent Bond
When one atom is bonded to a more electronegative atom and the electrons of the bond are not shared equally.
When opposite charges, cations and anions, attract each other.
A charged atom/molecule
when the charge is positive
When the charged atom is negative.
Compounds formed by ionic bonds.
It forms when a hydrogen atom covalently bonds to one electronegative atom that is also attracted to another electronegative atom.
Van Der Waals interactions
Weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that are brought about by localized charge fluctuations.
The making and breaking of chemical bonds that lead to changes in the composition of matter.
The starting materials of a chemical reaction
The end result of a chemical reaction
The point at which the reactions offset one another exactly.