The subfield of semantics concerned with the meanings of words and the meaning relationships among words.
The study of how context and situation affect meaning.
Principles for determining the meaning of larger units like sentences from the meaning of smaller units like noun phrases and verb phrases.
The circumstances that must be known to determine whether a sentence is true and therefore part of the meaning or sense of declarative sentences.
A theory of meaning that calculates the truth value or meaning of larger units by the application of semantic rules to the truth value or meaning of smaller units.
true or false used to describe the truth of declarative sentences in context.
A sentence that is true in all situations, a sentence true form the meaning of its word alone.
Describes a sentence that is true by virtue of its meaning alone, irrespective of context.
Describes a sentence that is false by virtue of its meaning alone, irrespective of context.
The relationship between two sentences where the truth of one necessarily follows from the truth of the other.
A sentence with the same truth conditions as another a sentence with the same meaning as another except possibly for minor differences.
Mutual negative entailment, the truth of one sentence necessarily implies the falseness of another sentence and vice versa.
A meaning relation in which sentences have the same truth values in all situations
Principle of compositionality
A principle of semantic interpretation that states that the meaning of a word, phrase or sentence depends both on the meaning of its components and on how they are combined structurally.
Word that refers to a person, place or other entity with a unique reference known to the speaker and listeners.
A violation of semantic rules resulting in expressions that seem nonsensical.
Non-literal, suggestive meaning in which an expression that designates one thing is used implicitly to mean something else.
An expression whose meaning does not conform to the principle of compositionality, that is, may be unrelated to the meaning of its parts.
Describes an utterance whose meaning cannot be determined because of nonsense words.
That part of the meaning of a noun phrase that associates it with some entity. That part of the meaning of a declarative sentence that associates it with a truth value either true or false.
The inherent part of an expressions meaning that, together with context, determines its referent,
A word with the same or nearly the same meaning as another
Describes a single word with several closely related but slightly different meanings
A word pronounced the same as another and spelt the same. e.g. bat the animal, bat the stick, bat her eyes.
Multiple meanings of sentences due to words that have multiple meanings.
A word pronounced identically to another but spelt differently.
A sentence that has the same meaning as another due to synonyms.
Two antonyms related in such a way that the negation of one is the meaning of the other.
In a gradable pair of antonyms the word that is not used in questions of degree. e.g. princess marked prince not.
Member of a gradable pair of antonyms used in questions of degree. e.g. prince is unmarked princess is marked.
Pair of antonyms in which one describes a relationship between two objects and the other describes the same relationship when the two objects are reversed.
A word that has two opposite meanings. e.g. cleave 'to split' 'cling together'
A word whose meaning is a specific instance of a more general meaning. red, white, blue hyponyms for colour
A word substituted for another word or expression with which it is closely associated. e.g. brass refers to military officers
The study of the linguistic meaning of morphemes, words, phrases and sentences
A grammatical morpheme that marks the semantic class of a noun.
A noun that cannot ordinarily be enumerated. e.g. two milks ungrammatical unless means two jugs of milk.
A type of sentence that describes activities such as john kissed mary.
A type of sentence that describes a state of being such as mary likes oysters.
The various NP's that occur within particular verbs, called its arguments.
The thematic role of the noun phrase whose referent does the action described by the verb.
The thematic role of the noun phrase whose referent undergoes the action of the verb.
The semantic relationships between the verb and the noun phrases of a sentence such as agent, theme, location, instrument, goal, source.
The thematic role of the noun phrase towards whose referent the action of the verb is directed.
The thematic role of the noun phrase whose referent is the place from which an action originates.
The thematic role of the noun phrase whose referent is the means by which an action is performed.
The thematic role of the noun phrase whose referent perceives something.
Uniformity of theta assignment
A principle of universal grammar that states that the various thematic roles are always structurally in the same place in deep structure.
The discourse that precedes a phrase or sentence that helps clarify meaning.
A linguistic unit that usually comprises more than one sentence.
Knowledge of who is speaking, who is listening, what objects are being discussed and general facts about the world we live in, used to aid in the interpretation of meaning.
A linguistic unit that usually comprises more than one sentences.
A pronoun ending with -self that generally requires a noun phrase antecedent within the same S.
A noun phrase with which a pronoun is coreferential.
a pronoun whose antecedent is explicitly mentioned in the discourse.
A pronoun that refers to some object not explicitly mentioned in the sentence. e.g. it in everyone saw it.
A pronoun whose reference is determined from context rather than linguistic discourse.
Words or expressions whose reference relies entirely on context and the orientation of the speaker in space and time.
the use of terms to refer to people whose reference relies entirely on context.
The use of terms to refer to time whose reference relies entirely on context.
The use of terms to refer to places whose reference relies entirely on context.
Maxims of conversation
Conversational conventions such as the maxim of quantity that people appear to obey to give coherence to discourse.
Maxim of quantity
A conversational convention that a speakers contribution to the discourse should be as informative as is required, neither more or less.
Maxim of relevance
A conversational convention that a speakers contribution to a discourse should always have a bearing on and a connection with the matter under discussion.
Maxim of manner
A conversational convention that a speakers discourse should be brief and orderly, and should avoid ambiguity and obscurity
Maxim of quality
a conversational convention that a speaker should not lie or make unsupported claims.
A broad principle within whose scope fall the various maxims of conversation. it states that in order to communicate effectively, speakers should agree to be informativ and relevant.
Implicit assumptions about the world required to make an utterance meaningful or appropriate.
Some linguists describe presuppositions in terms of implication.
The action that a speaker accomplishes when using language in context, the meaning of which is inferred be hearers.
A verb, certain usages of which comprise a speech act.
A sentence containing a performative verb used to accomplish some act. they are affirmative and declarative and are in the first person, present tense.
The effect of a speech act such as a warning, a promise, a threat and a bet.
An individual's way of speaking, reflecting and person's grammar.
Movement towards greater uniformity or decrease in variations among dialects
A geographic area defined by the predominant use of a particular language variety, or a particular characteristic of a language variety.
A dialect spoken by a particular social class that is perpetuated by the integrity of the social class.
The dialect considered the norm
A simple but rule governed language developed for communication among speakers of mutually unintelligible languages often based on one of those languages
A language that begins as a pidgin and eventually becomes the first language of a second community through its being learnt by children.
A linguistic phenomenon such as double negation whose occurrence varies according to the social context of the speaker.
A language common to speakers of diverse languages that can be used for communication and commerce.
The language that provides most of the lexical items of a pidgin or creole typically the language of the socially/ economically dominant group.
the language of the indigenous people in a language contact situation that contributes to the lexicon and grammar of a pidgin or creole but in a less obvious way that the superstrate language.
The ability to speak two languages with native or near-native proficiency, either by an individual speaker or within a society.
The ability of an individual speaker to speak two languages with native or near native proficiency.
The mutual abilities of a community to speak two languages with native or near native proficiency.
The incorporating of a loan word from one language into another.
A method of second-language learning in which the student memorises words and syntactic rules and translates them between the native language and target language.
A styalistic variant of a language appropriate to a particular social setting
The referential meaning of a word or expression
The evocative/ affective meaning associated with a word. two words or expressions may have the same denotative meaning but different connotations.
The process whereby the history of a word is derived from non-scientific speculation or false analogy with another word.