Biology Semester Test

149 terms by millerbam

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Mountain Lion

common name for Felis Concolor

Fungi

molds, mildews, and yeasts belong to this kingdom

Fossils

method used to classify organisms

Organisms

identified using a dichotomous key

Linnaeus

person who classified organisms based on structural similarities

Class

what Phyla are divided into

Plant

kingdom that includes mosses and ferns

7

number of levels of classification

Genus

first name in the scientific name

Divisions

what the plant kingdom is divided into

Dichotomous Key

guide designed to identify organisms

Phylogenetic Tree

shows the evolutionary relationship among organisms

Binomial Nomenclature

system in which each organism receives a two part name

Taxonomy

branch of biology that classifies organisms

Biodiversity

variations in organisms

Animal

kingdom that includes sponges

Species

most specific level of classification

Prokaryotic

organism with no nuclues

Kingdom

most general category of the classification system

Autotroph

organisms that make their own food

sponges

example of the animal kingdom

algae

example of the protist kingdom

bacteria

example of the monera kingdom

mosses

example of the plant kingdom

molds

example of the fungi kingdom

heterotroph

organisms that don't make their own food

Nucleus

Prokaryotes do not have a

Transformation

process by which bacteria pick up and incorporate DNA from dead bacterial cells

Endospore

structure in some bacteria that are resistant to adverse environmental factors

Methanogens

archaebacteria that can be found in the intestnes of cows and produce methane

Gram Staining

tool used for classifying bacteria

Lyme Disease

bacterial infection transferred from the bite of a deer tick

Pneumonia

disease caused by a bacteria in a human

Conjugation

when two bacteria join and transfer DNA

Chemoautotrophs

bacteria that make their own food by a process other than photosyntheses

Capsule

protective layer in some bacteria that make it hard to kill

Flagellum

long whip like tail found in some bacteria

Pili

short hair like structures involved in reproduction

Binary Fission

type of asexual reproduction in bacteria

Bacillus

rod shaped bacteria

Aerobes

make food in the presence of oxygen

Anaerobes

can break down food in the absence of oxygen

Toxin

poison produced by some bacteria

Autotroph

can make their own food

Tetanus

can cause lockjaw that grows in deep puncture wounds

Respiration

due to this process bacteria are classied by being either an anaerobe or aerobe

Nutrition

due to this bacertia are classified as being either a heterotroph or an autotroph

Shape

due to this bacteria are classied as coccus, bacillus, or spirillum

Cell Wall Composition

bacteria are classied by whether it has this part and what it is made up of

Cold Sore Virus

example of a virus that goes thru the lysogenic cycle

Protein Coat

a virus is a particle that consists of a core of nucleic acid and a ___________

Filovirus

type of virus that has no distinct or uniform shape

Spikes

covering the envelopes of some viruses that allows them to attach to cells they infect

Antibodies

what vaccines help the body to produce to help fight off viruses

Retroviruses

virus that contain reverse transcriptase, RNA, and DNA

Genetic Engineering

using viruses to transfer genes from one host cell to another

Helical

type of virus in which the nucleic acid is coiled inside a long narrow capsid

Genetic Material

viruses contain ________

Viroid

single strand of pure RNA that causes plant diseases

Vaccine

contain a weakened or dead form of the virus

Prion

protein molecule that causes disease in animals

Capsid

protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid

Lysogenic Cycle

replication cycle that does not immediately kill the host

Provirus

viral DNA that becomes part of the host DNA

Lytic Cycle

replication cycle that results in immediate cell death

Host

organism that shelters and nourishes something

Envelope

an additional protective coating found in some viruses

Bacteriophage

viruses that infect only bacterial cells

Polyhedral Virus

have multifaced geometric appearance

Specificity

viruses that invade only a certain type of organism

Binal Virus

2 distinct parts; a polyhehdral capsid and a helical tail

Attachment

1st step where the virus attaches to the host cell at a special receptor site

Entry

2nd step where the enzyme is released to weaken the cell membrane and DNA or RNA is injected

Replication

3rd step where viral DNA inactivates cell DNA and takes over the cell

Assembly

4th step where viral parts are put together using all of the cell's energy

Release

5th step where the host cell breaks apart and the new viruses are released

Ascaris, Hookworm, Trichina

types of parasitic roundworms

Acoelmate

organism that has no coelom (body cavity)

Bilateral System

being able to cut into equal left and right halves, with sense organs on its posterior end

Coelomate

has a coelom (body cavity)

Cyst

young worm with protective covering found in the muscle of the host

Eyespot

detect light changes for planaria

Flame Cells

excretory system of planarians is composed primarily of bulblike structures called -------

Free Living

organisms that don't depend on another organism for a place to live

Fluke

flatworm that lives in the liver of sheep and can cause Schistosomiasis in humans

Ganglia

concentration of receptors and nerves at the anterior end

Hermaphrodite

organism that has both male and female parts

Intermediate Host

nourishment for larvae that is different from host of the adult

Parasitic

organism that depends on another organsim for a place to live

Parasite

obtain nourishment from another living organism

Planaria

type of organism that uses a pharynx to extend outside the body to suck in food

Platyhelminthes

Phylum of flatworms

Proglottid

tapeworm has its reproductive organs in these segments

Pseudocoelomate

organism that has a "false" body cavity

Reproductive System

proglottids of a tape worm have a complete __________

Roundworms

only worms in this section that have separate sexes, two openings in the digestive system, and a pseudocoelem, include Ascaris

Scolex

the knob shaped head of a parastitic tapeworm

Trichina Worms

uncooked or poorly cooked pork may contain these

Trichinosis

disease that can be contracted from eating undercooked pork

Turbellaria

planaria(flatworm) that has eyespots that detect light - belong to which class

Two

nematodes have a digestive system with ___ openings

Flatworms

have one opening in the digestive system, an acoelmate, is a hermaphrodite, include Planaria

Hookworm

larvae enter the body by boring thru the skin, usually the feet

Ascaris

enter humans in contaminated food or water and cause blockage in the intestines

Tapeworm

flat, ribbon like body with a knob shaped head

Lamprey

these fish are not good swimmers because they lack paired fins, bore holes in fish and lives off the body fluids

Endoskeleton

Traits that is shared by all vertebrates

Dorsal

fin that lies on top of the fish

Chew their food

most fish have movable jaws and teeth, but most do not __

Osteichthyes

bony fish that include lobe-finned, lung

Agnatha

lampreys belong to this class

Kidneys

an excretory organ of fish and other vertebrates

Endotherms

capable of maintaining a constant body temperature by converting food energy into heat

Ectothermic

fish's body temperature is regulated by external environment

Gills

in fish, the actual exchange of gasses takes place in the capillaries of the __

Detect Vibrations

keenest sense of a shark is thought to be its

Chondricthyes

fish that has movable jaws and a skeleton of cartilage belong to this class, include shark, skates, rays

Pelvic

structure in fish that is homologous to the hind leg of other vertebrates

Cephalization

having a well developed brain and sense organs in the skull

Ray-finned

fish that have fins that are soft or contain spines

Vertebrae

series of bones that surrounds the spinal cord

Olfactory

organ in the fish that detects smell

Caudal

another name for the tail fin

Operculum

gill covering that acts as protection

Lobe-finned

belong to class Osteichtheys, coelacanth

Swim Bladder

thin walled sac tht can inflate and deflate

Manta Ray

belong to Chondrichthyes class, predator and are 6 m across

Arthropda

"jointed feet"

chitin

exoskeletion

molting

shedding the exoskeleton

crustaceans

lobsters,crabs,crayfish,shrimp

cephalothorax

fused head and thorax

carapace

shield of chitin that protects the internal organs

antennae

used for sensory purposes

mandibles

JAW---------------LIKE APPENDAGES THAT CRUSH AND CHEW FOOD

maxillae

hold the food and pass it to the mouth

maxillipeds

for touch,taste,and handling the food

claws(chelipeds)

used for catching food and for defense

walking legs

used for movement

swimmerets

used for swimming and reproduction

telson

triangular shaped '' end '' of the crayfish

uropod

used for movement (backward swimming)

compound eyes

made up of a multiple lenses

stomach

contain ''teeth'' to help crush the food

digestive gland

digests and absorbs the food

green gland

regulates the amount of salt and liguids in the blood

cope pods

smallest crustaceans

decapods

largest crustaceans

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