Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
the northernmost slave states contested by North and South; during the Civil War the four border states (Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri) remained within the Union, though they contained many Confederate sympathizers and volunteers
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
cut off an area by means of troops or warships to stop supplies or people from coming in or going out; to close off a country's ports
Battle of Bull Run
The first battle of the Civil War, it took place on July 2, 1861 at Manassas Junction, VA at which surprised Union troops retreated, it showed that the war was not going to be one quick clean battle
a warship that is heavily armored with iron; developed by the Confederates during the Civil War to fight against the Union ships blockading their port cities
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North succeeded in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
On September 22, 1862 encouraged by the Union victory at Antietam, Lincoln publicly announced that he would issue the Emancipation Proclamation- a decree freeing all enslaved persons in the states still in rebellion after January 1, 1863. Since the Proclamation freed enslaved African Americans only in states at war with the Union it did not address slavery in the border states. The proclamation transformed the conflict over preserving the Union into a war of liberation.
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money
Battle of Gettysburg
Union Civil War victory that turned the tide against the Confederates at Gettysburg, Pennslyvania, resulted in the loss of 50,000 soldiers
William Tecumseh Sherman
Union General who destroyed South during "march to the sea" from Atlanta to Savannah, example of total war
Appomattox Court House
famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union.
federal agency set up in 1865 to provide food, schools, and medical care to freed slaves in the South
To keep African-Americans from their inalienable rights. They deprived blacks of life, liberty or property without due process of law. In 1866, a small group of leaders in the Radical Republican Party got Congress to pass a Civil Rights Act which eliminated it.
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
a system used on southern farms after the civil war in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
Ku Klux Klan
White-supremacist group formed by six former Conferedate officers after the Civil War. Name is essentially Greek for "Circle of Friends". Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915.
Organization created at end of Civil War that aided southerns (mainly former slaves) with education, finding food, shelter and employment.
Ratified 1870. One of the "Reconstruction Amendments". Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
The Compromise of 1877
*It withdrew federal soldiers from their remaining position in the South, enacted federal legislation that would spur industrialization in the South, appointed Democrats to patronage positions in the south, and appointed a Democrat to the president's cabinet.