was a French philosopher and historian who wrote Era of Tyrannies, which talked about the different kinds of government and how they all stemmed out of nature of modern war.
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
The motto of the French Revolution and the demands of the popular people
Battle of Waterloo
This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler
Brumaire Coup and The Consulate
This is the act in which Napoleon ended the Directory by ousting the Directors and disbanding the legislature. He then established a strong military dictatorship in place of the weak Directory.
This was the man who served under Cardinal Richelieu and laid the foundations for Louis XIV's expansionist policies
Name two causes of the French Revolution
1) The economic and financial crisis that led to the calling of the Estates General. 2) The political incompetence of Louis XV and XVI. 3) The unfair taxation between the three estates
Committee of Public Safety
Led by Maximilien Robespierre, this was the group that carried out the Reign of Terror
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Congress of Vienna
This was the meeting between the Quadruple Alliance in order to formulate a peace agreement and to balance the victories of the Napoleonic wars
This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
This was the group of people called by Louis XVI that would keep the king in check like the English Parliament
This man was an active player in the French Revolution of 1848 who helped in the overthrow of Charles X
These were the liberals of France who did not want to execute Louis XVI, but The Mountain did anyway
This was the radical group of people in the National Assembly that became notorious for implementing the Reign of Terror.
Klemens von Metternich
This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression. He led the Austrian delegation at the Congress of Vienna.
Liberty Leading the People (Delacroix)
This work of art shows the glory of the French Revolution
This French king appointed Cardinal Richelieu
This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France
This was the king of France before and after Napoleon's exile
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
This was the new feeling of pride for one's country after the Napoleonic era
This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
The main leader of The Mountain and the man who ruled France after the First Revolution
Tennis Court Oath
This is the oath that the representatives of the third estate took when they swore that they would never disband until they had proper representation
Thermidorian Reaction and The Directory
This was the reaction to the despotism after the Second Revolution which led to the establishment of the five-man executive that supported the French military which was not popular with the French people
The clergy made up a very small percentage but owned 10% of the land; the nobles made up another small percentage; and the rest of the people made up 97% of France and owned very little land.
Women's March on Versailles
This was the march by the women of Paris to the home of Marie Antoinette in order to demand action for the ridiculous raise in the price of bread
Leader of the National Assembly in France, he ordered the Paris Commune to be crushed. He also declared the Third Republic of France, because it "divided France the least". He was a leading historian of the French Revolution, with a multivolume history that argued that the republicanism of the Revolution was the central theme of modern French history.
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
A French soldier appointed by the Committee of Public Safety to help reorganize the failing war effort against Austria and Prussia. He is also one of the first members of the Directory.
The French king from 1774 to 1792 who was deposed during the French Revolution and executed in 1793. Louis XVI was forced to give in to the demands of the Parlement of Paris and convene the Estates-General—an action that led directly to the outbreak of the Revolution. Louis XVI was deposed in 1792 and executed a year later.
The wife of King Louis XVI and, in the French commoners' eyes, the primary symbol of the French royalty's extravagance and excess.
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
supporter of the Third Estate, and author of the fiery 1789 pamphlet "What Is the Third Estate?" Sieyès was one of the primary leaders of the Third Estate's effort at political and economic reform in France.
A large armory and state prison in the center of Paris that a mob of sans-culottes sacked on July 14, 1789, giving the masses arms for insurrection. The storming of the Bastille had little practical consequence, but it was an enormous symbolic act against the ancien régime, inspired the revolutionaries, and is still celebrated today as the French holiday Bastille Day.
The bourgeoisie represented the moderate voices during the French Revolution and were represented by delegates in both the Estates-General and the National Assembly.
Constitution of 1791
The new French constitution that in 1791 established a constitutional monarchy, or limited monarchy, with all executive power answerable to a legislative assembly. Under the new constitution, King Louis XVI could only temporarily veto legislation passed by the assembly. The constitution restricted voting in the assembly to the upper and middle classes of French society and abolished "nobility" as a legal order.
The new executive branch established by the constitution written during the moderate Thermidorian Reaction of 1794-1795. The Directory was appointed by the legislative assembly. However, after 1797 election results proved unfavorable to elements in the Directory, it orchestrated an overthrow of the assembly and maintained dubious control over France until it was overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799.
A period in July and August 1789 during which rural peasants revolted against their feudal landlords and wreaked havoc in the French countryside.
The body that replaced the Legislative Assembly following a successful election in 1792. As one of its first actions, the convention declared the French monarchy abolished on September 21, 1792, and on the following day declared France a republic. Though originally dominated by moderates, the convention became controlled by radical Jacobins in 1793.
The name given to the Third Estate after it separated from the Estates-General in 1789. As a body, the National Assembly claimed to legitimately represent the French population. The assembly dissolved in 1791 so that new elections could take place under the new constitution.
Urban workers and peasants, whose name—literally, "without culottes," the knee-breeches that the privileged wore—signified their wish to distinguish themselves from the high classes. The mob mentality of the sans-culottes constituted the most radical element of the Revolution.
The royal palace built by King Louis XIV a few miles outside of Paris. Known for its extraordinary splendor, extravagance, and immense size, Versailles was the home of the king, queen, and all members of the royal family, along with high government officials and select nobles. On October 5, 1789, a mob of angry and hungry French women marched on Versailles, bringing the royal family back to Paris to deal with the food shortage.
Violence carried out by reactionary (usually monarchist or conservative) groups as part of a counter-revolution.
The Third of May
A painting by Francisco de Goya depicting Napoleon's brutal massacring of the Spanish citizens.
Duke of Wellington
The British general who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo.
Napoleon's plan to cut off all trade between Britain and the European continent, but this backfired on the French by hurting the relationship between Napoleon and his territorial states.
Known as the Hundred Days of Napoleon or Napoleon's Hundred Days for specificity, marked the period between Emperor Napoleon I of France's return from exile on Elba to Paris and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII.
Invasion of Russia
Considered the "turning point of Napoleonic Wars" when Russia defeated Napoleon and his army.
Russia used the "Scorched Earth" policy (destroyed all food and supplies as Russians retreated).