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Cardinal Richelieu strengthened the power of the monarchy by

taking away the Huguenots' political and military rights and executing conspirators

The Moguls in India were foreigners who were also

Muslims

The foundation for a constitutional monarchy in England was laid by the

Bill of Rights

What is absolutism?

a system of government in which a ruler holds total power

Shah Jahan had the _________ built in Agra in memory of his wife.

Taj Mahal

Elizabeth Tudor tried to

avoid war with France and Spain

The Thirty Years' War involved all the major European powers except which nation?

England

In the late thirteenth century, a new group of Turks under their leader Osman began to build power in

the northwest corner of Anatolian Peninsula

Seven percent of the total French population were

Huguenots

Under the leadership of _________, the Ottomans conquered Constantinople and gained dominance over the Balkans and the Anatolian Peninsula.

Mehmet II

The Civil War in England was a conflict between

the king and parliament

James I of ENgland strongly believed in

the divine right of kinds

Ottoman expansion in the early fourteenth century eventually led to their control over

the Bosporus and the Dardanelles

Peter the Great wanted to

westernize, or Europeanize, Russia

Recruited from the local Christian population in the Balkans, the janissaries were

converted to Islam and trained as foot soldiers or administrators to serve the sultan

the rump parliament was

what was left after cromwell purged the members who did not support him

the ottoman empire after the death of suleyman was hurt by

lack of training for officials, cost of constant wars, and rise of a privileged group

the hapsburg empire did

take control of hungary, croatia, and slavonia, lose their holy roman empire in germany, and remain a collection of territories

the bill of rights did

recognize parliament's right to make laws, recognize the right to jury trials, prevent monarchs from raising armies

what was the name of the group of ottoman religious advisers that administered the legal system and schools of education muslims?

ulema

philip ii of spain was known as the

most catholic king

the commissariat established by frederick william in prussia became

both a military and civil agency

when henry of navarre became henry iv, he

converted to catholicism

the ______ brought an era of unity to the subcontinent of india in the 1600s

moguls

_________ sought to increase the wealth and power of france by following the ideas of mercantilism

jean-baptiste colbert

the house of _______ ruled the southern french kingdom of navarre

bourbon

during the meetings of the imperial council, the sultan

sat behind a screen and privately indicated his desires to the grand vizier

local officials, known as _______, kept a portion of the taxes paid by the peasants in lieu of a salary

zamindars

what was the glorious revolution

the invasion of england by william of orange which overthrew james ii with almost no bloodshed

gunpowder empires were empires that

were formed by outside conquerors who unified the regions they conquered

babur's forces entered india through the

khyber pass

the british successes in india were achieved through the military genius of

sir robert clive

the _____ granted puritans, but not catholics, the right of public worship

toleration act of 1689

william and mary were offered the throne of england to

prevent succession by a catholic monarch

the romanov dynasty in russia was

chosen by the national assembly

the _________ were protestants in england who were inspired by calvinist ideas

puritans

the ottoman empire preferred to

administer their lands through local rulers and pashas

the hereditary nature of the position of sultan

led to struggles over succession between the sons of the sultan

james i of england believed in the divine right of kings, which is

the idea that kings received their power from god and are responsible only to god

what two elements aided akbar in gaining control of almost all of india

heavy artillery and successful negotiators

the french kings of the sixteenth century managed to

do little to stop the spread of protestantism

the ottoman turks conquered

constantinople, north africa, and the balkans

by the late eighteenth century, mogul prosperity was shaken by

the coming of the british

who established the mogul dynasty?

babur

the rump parliament did

abolish the monarchy, behead charles i, and declare england a republic or commonwealth

louis xiv maintained complete authority as monarch by

distracting the nobles and royal princes with court life, to keep them out of politics

local, lower-ranking officials called zamindars did

exercise considerable power, receive farm plots, and keep part of the taxes they collected

sir robert clive was an aggressive british empire builder who

was empowered by the british crown to fight any force that threatened the east india company's power in india

oliver cromwell's defeat of the king's forced allowed him to

take control of england and eventually establish a military dictatorship

the edict of nantes recognized catholicism as the official religion of france, and

gave the huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges

one of the richest parts of philip ii's empire was

the spanish netherlands

montesquieu's most lasting contribution to political thought was his

analysis of the governmental system of checks and balances

the scientific method was

based on collecting and analyzing evidence, a systematic procedure, and crucial to the evolution of science

according to the ptolemaic system,

the universe is a series of concentric spheres with earth fixed at the center

rene descartes believed in one absolute truth

his own existence

all of the following were outcomes of the seven year's war in north america

spanish florida came under british control, france gave louisiana to spain, and canada became british

galileo's observations seemed to indicate that

the heavenly bodies were composed of material substance just like earth, not pure orbs of light

in jean-jacques rousseau's concept of a social contract,

an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will

in the wealth of nations, adam smith gave all the following roles to government

protection (the army), defense (the police), and public works

rationalism is the belief that

reason is the chief source of knowledge

who has been rightly called the father of modern rationalism

rene descartes

catherine the great of russia did

enlarge the russian empire, expand serfdom, and favor the landed nobility

the concern of eighteenth-century monarchs for a balance of power involved

larger armies, expanding territory, and preventing domination by one state

diderot's encyclopedia was used to

attack religious superstition

the union of england and scotland in 1707 created

the united kingdom of great britain

rousseau believed in all of the following

education fostering natural instincts, rule of the general will, and balance of heart and mind

frederick the great of prussia

enlarged the army

the first philosopher to emphasize reason instead of religious faith, and thought people were naturally fearful and greedy

thomas hobbes

adam smith believed in laissez-faire, by which he meant that

the state should not regulate the economy

a philosopher who greatly admired the parliamentary system of britain and believed in the separation of powers. he also encouraged the countries of spanish america to join together as one nation

simon bolivar

which british head of cabinet acquired canada and india

william pitt the elder

this philosopher believed that a successful government would have different branches of government with separation of their powers

baron de montesquieu

a priest that worked to improve conditions for the amerindians and mestizos in mexico and helped fight for mexican independence

miguel hidalgo y costilla

italian philosopher whose ideas led to changes in european and american criminal laws

cesare beccaria

in the war of austrian succession

prussia invaded austria

inductive reasoning involved

proceeding from the particular to the general

john locke's ideas suggest that people were

molded by their experiences

to voltaire and many other philosophes the universe was

like a clock

isaac newton's universal law of gravitation

showed how one law could explain all motion in the universe

the philosopher wrote extensively about the education system and encouraged children to immerse themselves in nature in order to be well-rounded individuals

jean-jacques rousseau

_____ was the first to argue that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe

nicholas copernicus

this diplomat believed in equal education regardless of social status and supported the people during the french revolution that believed a king should not have total control

thomas jefferson

______ wrote on the fabric of the human body which presented a careful and accurate examination of human anatomy

andreas vesalius

what is the most important difference between the ptolemaic system and the copernican system

the celestial body at the center of the universe

as a result of the treaty of paris in 1763

great britain gained control of india and north american, making it the world's greatest colonial power

francis bacon, an english philosopher, believed scientists should

use inductive reasoning

montesquieu's ideas were used in

the united states constitution

francis bacon who developed the scientific method was a

philosopher

rousseau argued that society should be governed by

a social contract

the idea that the government should not regulate the economy

laissez-faire

system of planetary motion that places earth at the centure of the universe

geocentric

system of planetary motion that places the sun at the center of the universe

heliocentric

system of government where rulers tried to use enlightened ideas, while keeping their royal powers

enlightened absolutism

the offspring of europeans and native americans

mestizo

an eighteenth-century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law

deism

elegant drawing room where people would meet to discuss the ideas of the enlightenment

salon

the geocentric model of the universe that prevailed in the middle ages

ptolemaic system

idea that society agrees to be governed by its general will, and should be subject to the general will

social contract

the idea that scientists should proceed from the particular to the general by observing and testing

inductive reasoning

system of thought by descartes based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge

rationalism

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