States of Matter Review

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Chapter 3 States of Matter Test Review

Heavier particles move

faster

What determines the speed of aoms and molecules

their size and temperature

Archimede's principle

the boyant force on an object in the fluid is equal to the weight of the displaced volume of fluid

Viscosity

the resistance of a fluid to flow

Solid

holds its shape without a container

Kinetic theory implies

the higher the temperature the faster the particles move

Law of Conservation of Mass

mass cannot be created or destroyed

Ice floats in water because

it is less dense than water

Boyle's law relates the pressure of a gas to its

volume

When a fixed sample of gas increases in volume it must also

decrease in pressure and increase in temperature

Calculation for pressure

divide force by the area over which the force is exerted

Buoyant force

Upward force exerted on an object immersed or floating on a liquid

As the volume of a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature decreases, its pressure

increases

All matter is made of atoms and molecules that are

alway in motion

The law of conservation of energy states that

a substance has the same energy before and after a change of state

When ice melts to form liquid, energy is

released

The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid is the

freezing point

The engine of a car left running becomes hot because

energy is transferred from burning gasoline

A substance changes from a liquid to a gas during evaporation because

energy is absorbed

Examples of fluid

air, water, carbon dioxide

The ability of an object to float on a a fluid is influenced by

buoyant force of a fluid, density of the object and density of the fluid

Pascal's principle states that a contained fluid exerts pressure in what way

equally in all directions

Force divided by the area over which the force is exerted is the calculation for

pressure

As the pressure of a moving liquid increases, its speed

decreases

Gay-Lussac's Law

Law relating the temperature and pressure of gas

As the pressure of a gas at constant volume decreases, its pressure

decreases

Gasses are unique in comparison to solids and liquids because they

are easily compressible

As the pressure of a gas at constant temperature decreases, its volume

increases

P1V1=2V2

Gay-Lussac's Law

Which of these properties is shared by solids, liquids and gases

their particles are in constant motion

Why does the volume of a gas decrease when the pressure increases

Gas particles are pushed together when the pressure is increased

A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object is called

temperature

The process of a liquid becoming a gas is called

evaporation

The process of a liquid becoming a solid is called

freezing

Which state of matter has a definite volume, but not a definite shape

liquid

How does the density of an object that sinks into a fluid compare to the density of the fluid

the object that sinks is more dense than the fluid

The kinetic theory helps to explain the differences between

states of matter

A solid becomes a gas through a process called

sublimation

A gas becomes a liquid through a process called

condensation

When a fixed sample of gas increases in volume, it must also

decrease in pressure

What are the five changes of state

melting, freezing, evaporation, condensation and sublimation

Solid

Particles are rigid, fixed

Liquid

Paricles can slide past each other, but are still packed together

Gas

Particles are in constant motion and rarely stick together

Plasma

Particles have broken down and become ionized

Properties of Gas

No defifinate shape or volume, expand to fill container, compressible, low density and more empty space between particles.

Why does a duck float

the duck is less dense than the water

When an object floats

the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the objec

For any change of state of matter to occur

energy must be transforred

Energy can be converted from one form to another but it CANNOT be

created or destroyed

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