Biology Exam Study Guide - Chapter 11

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Gregor Mendel used pea plants to study
a. flowering.
b. gamete formation.
c. the inheritance of traits.
d. cross-pollination.

c

Offspring that result from crosses between true-breeding parents with different traits
a. are true-breeding.
b. make up the F2 generation.
c. make up the parental generation.
d. are called hybrids.

d

Gregor Mendel removed the male parts from the flowers of some plants in order to
a. prevent hybrids from forming.
b. prevent cross pollination.
c. stimulate self pollination.
d. make controlled crosses between plants

d

The chemical factors that determine traits are called
a. alleles.
b. traits.
c. genes.
d. characters.

c

Gregor Mendel concluded that traits are
a. not inherited by offspring.
b. inherited through the passing of factors from parents to offspring.
c. determined by dominant factors only.
d. determined by recessive factors only.

b

When Gregor Mendel crossed a tall plant with a short plant, the F1 plants inherited
a. an allele for tallness from each parent.
b. an allele for tallness from the tall parent and an allele for shortness from the short parent.
c. an allele for shortness from each parent.
d. an allele from only the tall parent.

b

The principle of dominance states that
a. all alleles are dominant.
b. all alleles are recessive.
c. some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.
d. alleles are neither dominant nor recessive.

c

When Gregor Mendel crossed true-breeding tall plants with true-breeding short plants, all the offspring were tall because
a. the allele for tall plants is recessive.
b. the allele for short plants is dominant.
c. the allele for tall plants is dominant.
d. they were true-breeding like their parents.

c

If a pea plant has a recessive allele for green peas, it will produce
a. green peas if it also has a dominant allele for yellow peas.
b. both green peas and yellow peas if it also has a dominant allele for yellow peas.
c. green peas if it does not also have a dominant allele for yellow peas.
d. yellow peas if it does not also have a dominant allele for green peas.

c

A tall plant is crossed with a short plant. If the tall F1 pea plants are allowed to self-pollinate,
a. the offspring will be of medium height.
b. all of the offspring will be tall.
c. all of the offspring will be short.
d. some of the offspring will be tall, and some will be short.

d

In the P generation, a tall plant was crossed with a short plant. Short plants reappeared in the F2 generation because
a. some of the F2 plants produced gametes that carried the allele for shortness.
b. the allele for shortness is dominant.
c. the allele for shortness and the allele for tallness segregated when the F1 plants produced gametes.
d. they inherited an allele for shortness from one parent and an allele for tallness from the other parent.

c

In the P generation, a tall plant was crossed with a short plant. If alleles did not segregate during gamete formation,
a. all of the F1 plants would be short.
b. some of the F1 plants would be tall and some would be short.
c. all of the F2 would be short.
d. all of the F2 plants would be tall.

d

When you flip a coin, what is the probability that it will come up tails?
a. 1/2
b. 1/4
c. 1/8
d. 1

a

The principles of probability can be used to
a. predict the traits of the offspring produced by genetic crosses.
b. determine the actual outcomes of genetic crosses.
c. predict the traits of the parents used in genetic crosses.
d. decide which organisms are best to use in genetic crosses.

a

In the P generation, a tall plant is crossed with a short plant. The probability that an F2 plant will be tall is
a. 25%.
b. 50%.
c. 75%
d. 100%.

c

Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be
a. hybrid. c. heterozygous.
b. homozygous. d. dominant.

b

In the Punnett square shown in Figure 11-1, which of the following is true about the offspring resulting from the cross?
a. About half are expected to be short.
b. All are expected to be short.
c. About half are expected to be tall.
d. All are expected to be tall.

d

A Punnett square shows all of the following EXCEPT
a. all possible results of a genetic cross.
b. the genotypes of the offspring.
c. the alleles in the gametes of each parent.
d. the actual results of a genetic cross.

d

If you made a Punnett square showing Gregor Mendel's cross between true-breeding tall plants and true-breeding short plants, the square would show that the offspring had
a. the genotype of one of the parents.
b. a phenotype that was different from that of both parents.
c. a genotype that was different from that of both parents.
d. the genotype of both parents.

c

What principle states that during gamete formation genes for different traits separate without influencing each other's inheritance?
a. principle of dominance
b. principle of independent assortment d.
c. principle of probabilities
d. principle of segregation

b

The Punnett square in Figure 11-2 shows that the gene for pea shape and the gene for pea color
a. assort independently.
b. are linked.
c. have the same alleles.
d. are always homozygous.

a

How many different allele combinations would be found in the gametes produced by a pea plant whose genotype was RrYY?
a. 2 c. 8
b. 4 d. 16

a

If a pea plant that is heterozygous for round, yellow peas (RrYy) is crossed with a pea plant that is homozygous for round peas but heterozygous for yellow peas (RRYy), how many different phenotypes are their offspring expected to show?
a. 2 c. 8
b. 4 d. 16

a

Situations in which one allele for a gene is not completely dominant over another allele for that gene are called
a. multiple alleles.
b. incomplete dominance.
c. polygenic inheritance.
d. multiple genes.

b

A cross of a black chicken (BB) with a white chicken (WW) produces all speckled offspring (BBWW). This type of inheritance is known as
a. incomplete dominance.
b. polygenic inheritance.
c. codominance.
d. multiple alleles.

c

Variation in human skin color is an example of
a. incomplete dominance.
b. codominance.
c. polygenic traits.
d. multiple alleles.

c

Gregor Mendel's principles of genetics apply to
a. plants only.
b. animals only.
c. pea plants only.
d. all organisms.

d

Why did Thomas Hunt Morgan use fruit flies in his studies?
a. Fruit flies produce a large number of offspring.
b. Fruit flies take a long time to produce offspring.
c. Fruit flies share certain characteristics with pea plants.
d. Fruit flies have a long lifespan.

a

A male and female bison that are both heterozygous for normal skin pigmentation (Aa) produce an albino offspring (aa). Which of Mendel's principles explain(s) why the offspring is albino?
a. dominance only
b. independent assortment only
c. dominance and segregation
d. segregation only

c

The number of chromosomes in a gamete is represented by the symbol
a. Z. c. N.
b. X. d. Y.

c

If an organism's diploid number is 12, its haploid number is
a. 12. c. 24.
b. 6. d. 3.

b

Gametes have
a. homologous chromosomes.
b. twice the number of chromosomes found in body cells.
c. two sets of chromosomes.
d. one allele for each gene.

d

Gametes are produced by the process of
a. mitosis. c. crossing-over.
b. meiosis. d. replication.

b

What is shown in Figure 11-3?
a. independent assortment
b. anaphase I of meiosis
c. crossing-over
d. replication

c

Chromosomes form tetrads during
a. prophase I of meiosis.
b. metaphase I of meiosis.
c. interphase.
d. anaphase II of meiosis.

a

What happens between meiosis I and meiosis II that reduces the number of chromosomes?
a. Crossing-over occurs.
b. Metaphase occurs.
c. Replication occurs twice.
d. Replication does not occur.

d

Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of
a. diploid cells. c. 2N daughter cells.
b. haploid cells. d. body cells.

b

Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of
a. two genetically identical cells.
b. four genetically different cells.
c. four genetically identical cells.
d. two genetically different cells.

b

Crossing-over rarely occurs in mitosis, unlike meiosis. Which of the following is the likely reason?
a. Chromatids are not involved in mitosis.
b. Tetrads rarely form during mitosis.
c. A cell undergoing mitosis does not have homologous chromosomes.
d. There is no prophase during mitosis.

b

Which of the following assort independently?
a. chromosomes
b. genes on the same chromosome
c. multiple alleles
d. codominant alleles

a

Linked genes
a. are never separated.
b. assort independently.
c. are on the same chromosome.
d. are always recessive.

c

If the gene for seed color and the gene for seed shape in pea plants were linked,
a. all of Mendel's F1 plants would have produced wrinkled, green peas.
b. Mendel's F2 plants would have exhibited a different phenotype ratio for seed color and seed shape.
c. Mendel's F1 plants would have exhibited a different phenotype ratio for seed color and seed shape.
d. all of Mendel's P plants would have produced wrinkled, green peas.

b

Gene maps are based on
a. the frequencies of crossing-over between genes.
b. independent assortment.
c. genetic diversity.
d. the number of genes in a cell.

a

If two genes are on the same chromosome and rarely assort independently,
a. crossing-over never occurs between the genes.
b. crossing-over always occurs between the genes.
c. the genes are probably located far apart from each other.
d. the genes are probably located close to each other.

d

The farther apart two genes are located on a chromosome, the
a. less likely they are to be inherited together.
b. more likely they are to be linked.
c. less likely they are to assort independently.
d. less likely they are to be separated by a crossover during meiosis.

a

The plants that Gregor Mendel crossed to produce the F1 generation made up the ____________________ generation.

p

The different forms of a gene are called ____________________.

alleles

If the allele for shortness in pea plants were dominant, all the pea plants in Mendel's F1 generation would have been ____________________.

short

If the alleles for traits in pea plants did not segregate during gamete formation, offspring that were recessive for a trait could be produced only by crossing two plants that were ____________________ for that trait.

recessive

____________________ is the likelihood that a particular event will occur.

probability

If you flip a coin five times and it comes up heads each time, the probability that it will come up heads the next time is ____________________.

50%

In the Punnett square shown in Figure 11-1, the genotypes of the offspring are ____________________.

TT and Tt

Pea plants that are TT, ____________________, or tt have different genotypes.

Tt

When two heterozygous tall pea plants are crossed, the expected genotype ratio of the offspring is _________________________.

1:2:1

The principle of independent assortment states that ____________________ for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.

genes

If pea plants that are homozygous for round, yellow seeds (RRYY) were crossed with pea plants that are heterozygous for round, yellow seeds (RrYy), the expected phenotype(s) of the offspring would be _________________________.

round yellow seeds

Crossing a pink-flowered four o'clock with a white-flowered four o'clock will produce pink-flowered offspring and ____________________-flowered offspring.

white

An organism's gametes have ____________________ the number of chromosomes found in the organism's body cells.

half

Crossing-over occurs during the stage of meiosis called ____________________.

prophase I

The relative locations of each known gene can be shown on a ____________________ map

gene

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