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Three layers of the heart

Endocardium, Myocardium, Epicardium

Erb's Point

located at the third intercostal space to the left of the sternum

SA node

the primary pascemaker of the heart, located at the junction of the superior vena cava and the right atrium

Most comman clinical manifestations with Cardiac

chest pain, dyspnea, peripheral edema, weight gain,fatigue, dizziness,synocope

Myocardium

the heart muscle

Depolarization

electrical activation of a cell by the influx of Na into the cell while K exits the cell

Repolarization

return of the cell to the resting state caused by re-entry of K and exit of Na

Effective refractory period

phase in which cells are incapable of depolarizing

Relative refractory period

phase in which cells require a stronger-than-normal stimulus to depolarize

Stroke volume

the amount of blood ejected wiht each heartbeat

Cardiac out put

amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in liter per min

Preload

degree of strech of the cardiac muscle fiber at the end of diastole, Frank Starlin law

Contractility

ability of the cardiac muscle to shorten in responce to stimulation, Increased by catecholamines, SNS, some medications and decreased by hypoxemia, acidosis, and some medications

After load

resistance to ejection of blood from the ventricle, affected by systemic vascular resistance annd pulmonary vascular

Ejection fraction

percent of end-diastolic volume ejected with each heartbeat

Control of heart rate

Autonomic nervous system and baroreceptors

Control of Strike volume

Preload, afterload, contarctility

factors that influance the development of Hypertension

^sympathetic nervous system, ^reabsorption of Na and Chloride,and water by the kidneys, ^activity of the renin-angiotensin system, Decreases vasodiation, insulin resistance

Manifestation of Hypertension

no symptoms other then elivated BP

Late symptoms of Hypertension

Symptoms are seen late and very dangerous, Eye changes, Renal damage, Myocardial infaraction, Cardiac hypertrophy, stroke

Aging

PVR increases , widened paulse pressure, systolic HTN with normal DBP

Major Risk factors for Cardio

Hypertension, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia, DM, microalbuminuria or GFR <60,old age, family history

Classification of HTN (JNCVII) normal

<120/<80

Clasification of HTN (JNCVII) pre-hypertenson

120-139/80-89

Clasification of HTN (JNCVII) Stage 1

140-159/90-99

Clasification of HTN (JNCVII) Stage 2

>160/>100

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