Digital Single Lens Reflex
3 Advantages of D-SLR over point and shoot cameras
easier to change controls, greater range of depth of field, greater range of shutter speed, systems approach
2 advantages of film
more archival, less initial cost, promotes vision
2 advantages of digital media
instant review, faster to exhibit/share, more economical, metadata, RAW files, promotes experimentation
4 important and universally used digital photo file fromat acronyms
JPEG, DNG, PNG, PSD, TIFF, GIF
6 different white balance settings
Shade, Tungsten, Fluorescent, Auto, Daylight, Flash, Custom
There are over 90 different types of memory cards for digital cameras. List 3:
SD, XD, micro SD, SDHC, SDXC, CF, memory stick
What are the primary colors of light?
red, green, blue
red-cyan, blue- yellow, green-magenta
Advantages and disadvantages of low ISO
Advantages: less noise, sharper, more tonality, higher color saturation
Disadvantages: less depth of field, requires slower shutter speed, less exposure latitude
Advantages and disadvantages of high ISO
Disadvantages: more noise, less sharp, less tonality, lower color saturation
Advantages: more depth of field, allows faster shutter speed, more exposure latitude
2 principal ways of changing exposure with a D-SLR camera
shutter speed and aperture
What does f/4 mean?
(focal length of lens)/4 = aperture diameter
Does more or less light come into the camera when the aperture is changed from f/16 to f/11? How much more or less light?
more light, 2x more
What does "90" mean on the shutter speed dial?
shutter is open for 1/90th of a second
Does more or less light come into the camera when the shutter speed is changed from "60" to "125" ? How much more or less light?
less light, 1/2 less
Are pigments or dyes more stable for archival color in ink?
What does the term DVD-R mean?
Digital versatile disc dash recordable
If the light meter reads a normal exposure with 400 ISO at f/8 and 1/500 of a second but you want to change both the aperture and the shutter speed, what is an acceptable aperture and shutter speed setting for the same amount of exposure?
f/11 1/250 seconds or f/16 1/125 seconds
List every shutter speed in EV 1 increments
1", 1/2", 1/4", 1/8", 1/15", 1/30", 1/60", 1/125", 1/500", 1/1000", 1/2000"
What effect does changing the aperturehave on the image?
increases or decrease depth of field
What effect does changing the shutter speed have on the image?
blur or freeze the subject and/or camera movement
List 2 advantages of primes or fixed focal lengths
sharper, less chromatic aberration, cost, larger aperture
List 2 advantages of zooms or variable focal length lenses
better value, faster to change focal length, less bulk than equivalent primes
What is the ideal image ppi for monitor vieweing and the ideal dpi for printed photos?
Monitor= 72 P.P.I. Print=300 D.P.I
What is the "rule of thirds"?
Divide the frame into thirds both horizontally and vertically. Place the focal point onto one of the lines of intersection.
3 factors that affect depth-of-field
aperture, distance b/w subject and film plane, focal length of lens
You are photographing a subject 3 meters away with a 35mm lens at f/8. You can focus the subject from 1 meter to 30 meters, you also have a 18 mm and a 200 mm lens, and you can change the f/stop to f/4, f/4.5 f/5.6, f/6.7, f/9.5, f/11, f/13, f/16, f/19, and f/22. List 3 new setting you make to increase your depth-of-field.
f/22, 30m, 18mm
What type of lens causes compression?
What type of lens causes distortion?
1st permanent photograph?
Niepce, 1826, France
1st permanent color photograph?
Maxwell, 1861, Scotland
1st disposable camera?
Eastman, 1888, New York
1st digital camera?
Sasson, 1975, New York
2 advantages & 2 disadvantages of inkjet versus dye sub prints
Inkjet advantages: a) more choice of surfaces, b) more choice of sizes, c) less expensive, d) supplies more available
Inkjet disadvantages: a) less archival, b) slower to print, c) less water resistant, d) not instant dry
When do I use aperture priority (A or AV) mode and why?
When my priority is to control the depth of field using the aperture and I want the camera to automatically change the shutter speed for a normal exposure.
When do I use shutter priority (S or TV) mode and why?
When my priority is to control freeze or blur using the shutter speed and I want the camera to automatically change the aperture for a normal exposure.
When do I use manual exposure (M) mode and why?
When there is an unusual lighting condition and I want total control of both shutter speed and aperture and getting a normal exposure is low priority.
In the respective order of the acronym, what does RGB and CMYK stand for?
Red, Green, Blue, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black
What color pixels would you respectively get if they were hot, dead, or stuck?
Hot=all color but in the shape of a plus;
Stuck=Red, green, or blue.
8 ways you can move a digital photo from one Mac to another.
a) CD, b) DVD, c) USB flash drive, d) external hard drive, e) file sharing, f) email, g) file transfer protocol (ftp), h) firewire to firewire cable
What is the origin of the names Canon and Nikon?
Canon=Kwanon, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy.
Nikon=Contraction of the original company, Nippon Kogaku and the best 35mm film camera of the time, the Zeiss Ikon.
What are the four most important modes used on D-SLRs?
b) Aperture Priority (or Aperture Value)
c) Shutter Priority (or Time Value)
5 greatest perils to most working photographers.
d) Natural Disasters
What does the acronym I.S.O. stand for?
International Standards Organization
What does the ISO represent?
A standard measurement for sensitivity to light
What is the relationship between ISO 200 and ISO 1600?
ISO 1600 is 8 times more sensitive to light than ISO 200.