The heterozygous phenotype is somewhere in between the two homozygous parents.
Both alleles contribute to the phenotype. i.e. Speckled or spotted
Some genes are dominant and will show in the phenotype even if the organism has a dominant and recessive trait.
Genes that will only show in the phenotype if there are two of them within the organism
Genes that are located on the chromosomes that determine sex in offspring. Males have only one X gene and so the alleles are shown in them.
Used to predict and compare the genetic variations that will result from a cross
Chemical factors that determine traits
The different results of a gene
More than two alleles exist in a population
Traits controlled by two or more genes. i.e. AaBb
The material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics. Made up of Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine.
Nutrients that help build and maintain body tissues. Organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Consists of three consecutive nucleotides that specify a single amino acid that is to be added to the polypeptide
The number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half. Results in the production of four genetically different haploid cells. Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis.
Results in the production of two genetically identical diploid cells
Chromosomes pair with their corresponding homologous chromosome to form a tetrad.
Spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes
Fibers pull the chromosomes toward opposite end of the cell
Telophase and Cytokinesis
Nuclear membranes form. The cell separates into two cells (the process starts again)
A picture of chromosomes arranged in order
humans have 46 of these. Two of those chromosomes determine sex. Males have an XY pair and females have an XX pair
A cell that contains a single set of chromosomes and therefore a single set of genes
A cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
Changes in genetic material
Changes one or a few nucleotides. Occurs at one place in the DNA sequence
Change every amino acid that follows the point of the mutation
Changing a single nucleotide to another
Placing a extra nucleotide into the base sequence
A single nucleotide is removed from the base sequence
Changes in the number or structure of chromosomes
Most neutral. But dramatic cases may cause harmful disorders
Analyzes sections of DNA that have little or no known function but vary widely to identify people
Chart that shows the relationships within a family tree
A, B, AB, O.
Humane Genome Project
An ongoing effort to analyze the human DNA sequence. Done by "shotgun sequencing"- sequencing small parts then using computers and markers to put the pieces back together.