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Judaism

A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.

monotheism

belief in a single God

Exodus

The second book of the Bible, so named because it relates the departure of the Israelites from Egypt and their wandering through the desert up to Mt Sinai.

Diaspora

the scattering of the Jews outside Israel

Ten Commandments

A set of laws for responsible behavior, which, according to the Bible, were given to Moses by God.

Mosaic Law

based on Moses and ten commandments

Torah

(Judaism) the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written

Talmud

the collection of ancient rabbinic writings on Jewish law and tradition (the Mishna and the Gemara) that constitute the basis of religious authority in Orthodox Judaism

Tanach

the Jewish scriptures which consist of three divisions--the Torah and the Prophets and the Writings

Dead Sea Scrolls

writings by Jews who lived about 2,000 years ago

synagogue

(Judaism) the place of worship for a Jewish congregation

rabbis

ordained Jewish teachers and spiritual leaders

Sabbath

a day of rest and worship: Sunday for most Christians

kosher

food that fulfills the requirements of Jewish dietary law

Orthodox

These Jews follow all the Jewish laws the most strictly

Reform

Jews who beleive in the same traditions as Orthodox Jews just in a modernized form. They are also less strict than orthodox jews.

Conservative

The least strict out of the three types of judaism.

Rosh Hashanah

(Judaism) a solemn Jewish feast day celebrated on the 1st or 1st and 2nd of Tishri

Yom Kippur

(Judaism) a solemn Jewish fast day

Sukkot

week of celebration, people live in booths and offering sacrifices; 7th Month/ 15th - 21st of Tishri; Purpose-Remembers the wondering in the wilderness from Egypt to Cannan.

Hannukah

(Judaism) an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Temple of Jerusalem in 165 BC

Purim

(Judaism) a Jewish holy day commemorating their deliverance from massacre by Haman

Passover

(Judaism) a Jewish festival (traditionally 8 days) celebrating the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt

Zealots

Jews that rose up in armed rebellion against Rome in 66ce; unsuccessful, and Jewish Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed

Masada

In 74 A.D. 960 rebels held out on this mountaintop in a fortress.

Jerusalem

capital and largest city of the modern state of Israel

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