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Joshua vividly recalls his feeling and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of his grandfather's unexpected death. This best illustrates " " memory.

flashbulb

A $100 coat marked down from $150 can seem like a better deal than the same coat priced regularly at $100. This best illustrates the importance of

framing

Hearing the word "rabbit" may lead people to spell the spoken word "hair" as "h-a-r-e." This best illustrates the outcome of the a process known as

priming

A conscious memory of the name of the first president of the United States is a(n) " " memory.

explicit

When 80-year-old Ida looked at one of her old wedding pictures, she was flooded with vivid memories of her parents, her husband, and the early years of her marriage. The picture served as a powerful

retrieval cue

Which term referes to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating?

cognition

The recall of sad experiences is often primed by feelings of sadness. This most clearly illustrates

mood-congruent memory

After reading a newspaper report suggesting that drunken driving might have contributed to a recent auto accident, several people who actually witnessed the accident began to remember the driver involved as traveling more recklessly that was actually the case. This provides an example of

the misinformation effect

Eva had difficulty recognizing that a sea horse was a fish because it did not closely resemble her fish

prototype

A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of

an algorithm

Simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgements efficiently are called

heuristics

Noam Chomsky suggested that all human languages share a(n)

universal grammar

A televised image of a starving child has greater impact on Mr. White's perception of the extensiveness of world hunger that did a statistical chart summarizing the tremendous scope of the problem. This suggests that his assessment of the world hunger problem is influenced by

the availability heuristic

Compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money that is actually the case. their memory failure best illustrates

motivated forgetting

Consciously repeating the name of a new classmate you want to remember illustrates

effortful processing

Arnold so easily remembers his old girlfriend's phone number that he finds it difficult to recall his new girlfriend's number. Arnold's difficulty best illustrates

proactive interference

Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis emphasizes that

words shape the way people think

Some people are unable to arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles because they fail to consider a three-dimensional arrangement. This best illustrates the effects of " " on problem solving

fixation

Procedural memories for well-learned skills such as how to ride a bicycle are typically " " memories

implicit

Eye witnesses to a crime often recall the details of the crime most accurately when they return to the scene of the crime. This best illustrates

context-dependent memory

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