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Protostomes have ________ and __________ cleavage

spiral
determinate cleavage

Internal organs, including gonads, and reproductive organs develop in the _________

coelom

The coelom transports _________ and __________ internal organs

materials
protects

What type of mesoderm lines the coelom?

peritoeanitum

The coelom serves as a __________ by contracting muscles to push against the tube of fluid

hydrostatic skeleton

Two examples of Ecdysozoa

nematodes
arthropods

Platy means ________ and helminthes means _________

flat
worm

True coelom is a __________-__________ body cavity completely lined by ___________

fluid-filled
mesoderm

Tube with in a tube bodyplan:
___________- outer tube
___________- inner tube

body wall
digestive tube

Two branches f Protostomes

Lophotrochozoa
Ecdysozoa

Three examples of Lophotrochozoa

Platyhelminthes
mollusks
annelids

Platyhelminthes are what type of coelom

acoelomate

Platyhelminthes are ____________ meaning they have both male and female parts

hermaphrodites

How do platyhelminthes get nutrients by

diffusion

Are platyhelminthes free-living organism>

yes

Example of asexual reproduction down by platyhelminthes?

binary fisson

Binary fission is when it

splits down the middle and each side makes a new side

What type of nervous system do platyhelminthes have

ladder-type nervous sustem

Platyhelminthes' brain is composed of two

ganglia

Ganglia are

a collection of nerves

What is the flame cell and what does it do?

Protonephridia
function in osmoregulation and disposal of metabolic waste
also first kidney like organ

An auricle is
Do platyhelminthes have them?

an ear or 1st figure into sensor organ
yes

The mouth leads into the

pharynx

Larva always live in an

intermediate host

3 classes of Platyhelminthes

Turbellaria
Trematoda
Cestoida

Example of Cestoida

parasitic tapeworms

Schistosoma is a
What type of disease do they cause
Where do they live

blood fluke
schistosomiasis
freshwater

Where do the class Turbellaria live

marine/fresh water

What has a ventral foot used for locomotion

mollusca

Examples if Trematoda

parasitic fluke , blood luke, and endoprasite

Parasitic flukes infect the

liver

Taenia solium is what

tapeworms in pork

Blood flukes have a ___________ which is a tough layer on the endoparasite

tegument

The tegument resists what?

immune system of the host

Examples of Turbellaria

free-living flatworms
planarians

Taenia saginatus is what

tape worms in beef

The blood fluke turns into a _________ larva then grows into a ___________larva

ciliated
fork-tailed

What is cephalization

evolution of the head

Tapeworms have _________ or _________ for holdig on to their host

suckers
hooks

In a tapeworm there is a head called ___________ where the hooks and suckers are

scolex

The scolex bury into the

gut

The tapeworm is a segmented organism made of

proglottids

Mollusca is usually a _____________ animal covered by a ________.

soft-bodied
shell

The formation of the head increases the effectiveness of the animal to

actively find food, shelter, and mates
detect enemies

Proglottids are added

behind the neck

Each proglottid has both

eggs and sperm

What do you take to kill tapeworms

Methyl trexate (mustard gas)

What is the mantle

layer over visceral mass that secretes shell

Mollusca has a ______ gut

1-way

What is the visceral mass

reproductive organs under the shell

Mollusca has ____________ fertilization, ______ circulatory system, and ______ ________ on the mouth

internal
open
sharp razors

Cephalopods have a _____________ circulatory system

closed

Most marine mollusks have free-swimming, ciliated ______________ larva.

trochophore

Bivalves are ______________ feeders

suspension

Bivalves ingest their food by slicing off bites with their __________________.

rasplike tongue

Clams are ____________________ feeders.

suspension

Clams have an _____________ muscle that hold thee two shells together

abductor

H₂O goes in through the clam by an __________________ and out by ____________________

incurrent siphon
excurrent siphon

Trochophore larva undergo

torsion

3 classes of Mollusks

gastropoda
bivalvia
cephalopoda

What is the largest class of mulluks

gastropoda

Examples of gastropoda

snails
slugs

Gastropoda undergoes torsion which means

they twist their visceral mass as a larva making their anul opening behind their head

The phylum Gastropoda is a ________ coelomate, has an _______ circulatory system, and a ________ for locomotion

true
open
foot

Examples of class Bivalvia

clams
scallops
oysters

Bivalvia has a two part shell that is connected by the

abductor muscle

Movement of Bivalvia
Oysters and barnacles-
clams and muscles-
scallops-

fixed
burrow in the sand/mud
snapping motion of shells

Bivalvia have a __________ gut, ________ circulatory system, and __________ ganglion by the foot

1-way
open
pedal ganglion

The pendal ganglia are the

nerves in the foot

Cephalo means ...... poda means

head
foot

Gastro means..... poda means

stomach
foot

Examples of cephalopoda

squids
octopods
Nautilus

Cephalopoda is a class of ___________ swimmers

predatory

Cephalopoda have a _________ circulatory system

closed

Octopods have both ___________, cells for colour, and ______________, which change the texture and colour

Chromatophore
Euridophores

Octopods use chromatophores and euridophores to___________ or learn to copy surroundings

mimicry

3 classes of Annelida

Polychaeta
Oligochaeta
Hirudinea

Annelida are segmented worms. They are segmented both

internally and externally

Annelida has a large _______________ coelom

compartmentalized

Polychaeta are marine worms with _______, appendages for locomotion

parapodia

Oligochaeta are ______worms that are divided into more than _______ segments

earthworms
100

Hirudinea are _______ that have suckers

leeches

Nematoda are roundworms whose body is covered by a tough________ that helps prevent

cuticle
desiccation

What are some parasitic nematodes in humans

Ascaris
hookworms
pinworms
trichina worms

Arthropoda are segmented with jointed appendages and have an armorlike ___________ made of _______

exoskeleton
chitin

Arthropoda ______ to grow

molt

Arthropoda have an _____ circulatory system, and either ________, for gas exchange, or __________/book lungs

open
gills
tracheae

RNA differs from DNA in all the following except

RNA is a larger molecule than DNA

In Figure 12-03, the portion of the molecule labeled 5 is

the attached amino acid

In Figure 12-03, the portion of the molecule in the figure that contains the anti-codon is:

3

Suppose the following DNA sequence was mutated from AGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGAGA to AGAAGAGAGATCGAGAGA. What amino acid sequnce will be generated based on this muated DNA?

ser-ser-leu

Which statement is true?

The Hydrogen bonding of cytosine to guanine is an example of complementary base

The transcript in Figure 12-02 is labeled:

D

The process illustrated in Figure 12-02 is

Transcription

In Figure 12-02 the transcription process begins at the area labeled

E

The component labled B in Figure 12-02 is:

RNA polymerase

Ribose differes from deoxyribose by having:

an extra hydroxyl group

A mutation that replaces one amino acid in a protein with another is called a

missense mutation

Of all the different codons that exist, three of them

do not specify a particular amino acid but provide instruction such as stop

the total number of different three-base combinations of the four nucleic acid bases is:

64

The first event in translation of eukaryotes (staring with methionine) is the

base pairing of tRNA to AUG of the mRNA

In all organisms,the AUG codon codes for

initiation of translation

If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT, the tRNA anticodons would be

AUGCGU

RNA synthesis is also known as:

transcription

Adenine and guanine are

double-ringed purines

Which point mutation would be mos tlikely to have a catastrophic effect on the functioning of a protein

a base deletion near the start of the codin sequence

During protein synthesis, ribosomes

attach to the mRNA molecule and travel along its length

Following peptide bond formation between the amino acid in the A site on the ribosome and the growing polypeptide chain, the tRNA in the A Site`

moves to the P site of the ribosome

If a human gene mRNA were placed into a cell of yeast, it would be:

translated into the protein that is found in humans

Ribsosomes function as

two-part units

How is the four-letter language of nucleic acids converted into the 20-word language of amino acids

The 4 Nucleic acid bases combine in 3- letter sequences that define different amino acids.

Why is only one strand of DNA transcribed into mRNA

because transcribing both DNA strands would produce different amino acid sequences.

Where is the attachment site for RNA polymerase

promoter region

A particular eukaryotic protein is 300 amino acids long. WHich of the following could be the number of nucleotides in the DNA that codes for this protein

900

One of the mRNA codons specifying the amino acid leucine is CUA. Its corresponding anticodon is

GAU

The tRNA

Must be recognized by ribosomes, must have an anticodon, must have an atttachment site for the amino acid, must be recognized by a specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that adds the correct amino acid

A possible sequence of nucleotides in DNA that would code for the polypeptide sequences Phe- Leu- Ile- Val would be

AA-GAA-TAA-CAA

Initiation of transcription requires:

a promoter sequence

Uracil forms a complementray pair with ____ in RNA and ___ in DNA

Adenine and adenine

Termination of protein translation is due to

a stop or terminator sequence

Interrupted coding sequence include long sequences of base that do not code for amino acids. These noncoding sequences, called ___, are found in __ cells.

introns and eukaryotic

There are how many different kinds of amino acids in proteins?

20

Transfer RNA differes from other types of RNA because it

carries an amino acid at one end

The codon is found in the:

mRNA

A gene can now be defined as:

a DNA sequence that carries info to produce a specific RNA or protein product

Retroviruses or RNA tumor viruses use __ to make DNA:

reverse transcriptase

In DNA molecules

the nucleotides are arranged in a linear, unbranches pattern.

If the triplet UUU codes for the amino acid phenylalanine in bacteria, then in plants UUU should code for

phenylalanine

A gene mutation

is a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA, may be caused by enviromentral agents, may aruse spontaneously, can occur in all organisms

Substitution of one base pair for another can result in a _____ mutation that results in the conversion of an amino acid specifying codon to a termination codon

nonsense

a polyribosomes is

a complex of many ribosomes and an mRNA

Which of the following is a characteristic of uracil

the ability to bond with adenine

If cytosine makes up 22% of the nucleotides in a sample of DNA from an organism, then adnine would make up waht % of the bases

28

Nucleic acid contains

phosphorus

Frameshift mutation result from:

the insertion or deletion of one or two base pairs

If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT, the mRNA codons would be

UACGCA

Virulent (lytic) phages

destroy bacteria

A person with AIDS usually dies of a disease that an HIV negative person would have immunity against. This is because.

AIDS patient's white blood cells that fight invaders have been destroyed

VIral proteins can damage host cells by:

overwhelming the host cell with a large number of viruses

Viruses:

are usually species-specific, may have multiple origins, are probably related to mobile genetics elements, may have escaped from cells.

Which of the following identifies a group of DNA viruses?

herpersviruses

Viruses were first identified:

because they caused an infection and were small enough to pass through filters that trapped bacteria

Viruses that attack bacteria are called:

Phages

Retroviruses differ from other RNA viruses by:

having revere transcriptase instead of RNA- dependent RNA polymerase.

Viruses are classified by:

an international committee

A airbine virus carried in the droppings of mice is

Hanta Virus

A symptom of a transmissible spnogiform encephalopathy (TSE) is

degeneration of the brain and central nervrous system

Mad cow disease is an example of an infection cause by a:

prion

Which of the following is not a vector of viral disease?

prions

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