HONORS UNITED STATES HISTORY SPRING 2011 - 2012 FINAL EXAM REVIEW

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Camp David Agreement

Carter's greatest foreign policy achievement. This was when the president of Egypt and the Prime Minister of Israel both agreed to a very promising peace treaty at the presidential retreat in the Maryland Highlands.

Detente

relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China. Proposed by Nixon.

New Federalism

a policy in 1969, that turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems)

Nixon Doctrine

During the Vietnam War, the Nixon Doctrine was created. It stated that the United States would honor its exisiting defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

OPEC. an organization founded in 1960 of nations that export large amounts of petroleum: formed to establish oil-exporting policies and set prices.

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

(RN), SALT- A pact that served to freeze the numbers of long-range nuclear missles for five years in 1972. This treaty between Nixon (U.S.), China, and the Soviet Union served to slow the arms race that had been going on between these nations since World War II.

Watergate Scandal

A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the break-in and subsequent cover-up forced President Nixon to resign in 1974 to avoid impeachment.

Southern Strategy

The Southern Strategy was a term that described the Republican; move to campaign in the south after it had broken with the Democrats over civil rights. This was the beginning of the Republican domination of the south American sees today in national politics which began with Nixon

Stagflation

During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.

CREEP

Richard Nixon's committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a "dirty tricks" campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.

Saturday Night Massacre

dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus during the Watergate scandal 1973.

Gerald R. Ford

Republican (1974-1977) Pardoned Nixon after becoming president. OPEC caused serious inflation during his presidency. His slogan for the election of 1976 was, "Whip Inflation Now." (WIN). The result of the election did not reflect his clever acronymn., The House Minority leader who was named by Nixon to replace Spiro Agnew as Vice-President. It took nearly two months for the Senate to approve him however, leaving the nation with a President in trouble, with no vice-president.

Jimmy Carter

The 39th President who created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.

Human Rights

the rights possessed by all individuals by virtue of being human, regardless of their status as citizens of particular states or members of a group or organization

Glasnost

The policy of openness and transparency in the activities of all government institutions in the Soviet Union, together with freedom of information, introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in the second half of the 1980s.

Operation Desert Storm

1991 air attack operation launched by George H.W. Bush after Iraq invaded Kuwait; Iraq's attempted retaliation caused defeated & Iraq was soon forced to sign a ceasefire agreement with the US

First Persian Gulf War

kuwait was run by baghdad. Saddam Hussein believed he was justified in invading kuwait. believed kuwait was extracting oils from iraq's side of the border. as an effect countries (headed by US) formed alliances to defeat Saddam, UN placed several sanctions on iraq including flying zones.

Perestroika

a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society

Roe vs. Wade

the U.S. supreme Court ruled that there is a fundamental right ro privacy, which includes a woman's decision to have an abortion. Up until the third trimester the state allows abortion.

Strategic Defense Initiative

Popularly known as "Star Wars," President Reagan's SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.

Title IX

a United States law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."

Iran Hostage Crisis

In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.

Reagan Doctrine

The Reagan administration's abandonment of detente and return to an assertive form of containment. This was characterized by direct US intervention and indirect support of anticommunist insurgencies.

Iran Contra Affair

(RR) Americans kidnapped in Beirut by Iranian govt, so deal, scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected, Poindexter and North involved

USSR fell

when the Soviets failed due to the failure and lack of enforcement of Perestroika and Glasnost.

Reaganomics

The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.

Alliance for Progress

(JFK) 1961,, a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems, money used to aid big business and the military

Bay of Pigs

In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.

Berlin Wall

In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal

Freedom Summer

a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters. The project was organized by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a coalition of four established civil rights organizations: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), with SNCC playing the lead role.

The Great Society

Series of domestic initiatives announced in 1964 by LBJ to "end poverty and racial injustice." They included the Voting Rights Act of 1965, est of the Dept of Housing and Urban Development, Head Start, job-training programs, Medicare and Medicaid expansion, and various community action programs

The New Frontier

was a term used by John F. Kennedy in the U.S. presidential election. Originally it was just a slogan to inspire America to support him but the phrase developed into a label for his administration's domestic and foreign programs. The New Frontier program was intended to boost the economy, to provide international aid, to provide for national defense, and to boost the space program. He accomplished the Peace Corps on the international scale and the Alliance for Progress. Although Kennedy was assassinated before he could pass civil rights acts, he paved the way for many reforms that came later. The New Frontier was so significant in terms for the American society because it brought progress and many people looked up to J.F.K and was greatly affected by his assassination.

Student nonviolent coordinating committee

Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.

The War on Poverty

1960s; part of LBJ's 'Great Society' plan to eliminate poverty and racial injustice; instate welfare programs like medicare and medicaid that were reduced by later presidents; as America became wealthy in the 50s and 60s, LBJ wanted to ensure that all citizens were provided for in the "great american society" he was creating

John F. Kennedy

president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about hte crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.

Peace Corps

(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America

Warren Commission

Commission made by LBJ after killing of John F. Kennedy. (Point is to investigate if someone paid for the assasination of Kennedy.) Conclusion is that Oswald killed Kennedy on his own. Commissioner is Chief Justice Warren.

Lyndon B. Johnson

President 1963-1969; signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.

Medicare

A program added to the Social Security system in 1965 that provides hospitalization insurance for the elderly and permits older Americans to purchase inexpensive coverage for doctor fees and other health expenses.

Medicaid

a federal and state assistance program that pays for health care services for people who cannot afford them

Brown v. Board of Education

1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.

Rosa Parks

United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

An African-American Civil Right's Activist who was peaceful. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his cause. He was assasinated in 1968 in Tennesee, nobel peace prize for nonviolent leadership. youngest man in history to recieve that award, civil rights activist who delivered the famous "I Have a Dream" speech and also won the Nobel Peace Prize

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

SCLC, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success

Sit-in

protest in which people sit in a place and refuse to move until their demands are met. Used during civil rights movement in bars and restaurants.

Freedom Rider

African American and white college students (usually from northern states) rode buses through southern states to challenge segregation

Voting Rights Act of 1965

1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap

Malcolm X

1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality

Stokely Carmichael

a black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."

Black Power

A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.

Black Panthers

Led by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, they believed that racism was an inherent part of the U.S. capitalist society and were militant, self-styled revolutionaries for Black Power.

Little Rock Nine

In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.

March on Washington

In August 1963, civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in Washington to urge passage of President Kennedy's civil rights bill. The high point came when MLK Jr., gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to more than 200,000 marchers in front of the Lincoln Memorial.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city buses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.

NAACP

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional

James Earl Ray

Hired by unidentified people to assassinate Martin Luther King, Jr. He shot and killed King on the balcony of his hotel in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968. He was captured two months later in London.

Berlin blockade

The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.

GI Bill of Rights

Law Passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher education

HUAC

The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda,

Korean War

The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.

Levittown

In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.

Marshall Plan

Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.

McCarthyism

unscrupulously accusing people of disloyalty (as by saying they were Communists)

National Security Council

An office created in 1947 to coordinate the president's foreign and military policy advisers. Its formal members are the president, vice president, secretary of state, and secretary of defense, and it is managed by the president's national security assistant.

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries

Taft-Hartley Act

Act that provides balance of power between union and management by designating certain union activities as unfair labor practices; also known as Labor-Management Relations Act (LMRA)

Truman Doctrine

President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology

Containment

American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world

Chiang Kai-shek

General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong. (p. 788)

38th parallel

line of latitude that separated North and South Korea

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg

were American communists who were executed after having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage. The charges were in relation to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Theirs was the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history

H-bomb

hydrogen bomb invented in 1950's, MORE powerful than atomic bomb, example of Cold War arms race

Brinkmanship

the willingness to go to the brink of war to force an opponent to back down

Nikita Khrushchev

This was the Soviet leader during the 1950s and Cuban Missile Crisis.

Eisenhower Doctrine

policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country

U-2 incident

The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.

iron curtain

a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region

Federal Highway Act of 1956

This act, an accomplishment of the Eisenhower administration, authorized $25 billion for a ten- year project that built over 40,000 miles of interstate highways. This was the largest public works project in American history.

NASA

an independent agency of the United States government responsible for aviation and spaceflight

Sputnik

The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.

1950's family

In the 1950s in America, it was common to see larger families with several siblings. It was also common at that time for the mother to stay home to take care of the household and children while the father worked to support the family

Allies

Group of nations, including the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, who opposed the Axis powers

Atlantic Charter

1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII and to work for peace after the war

Axis powers

in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.

Battle of the Atlantic

Germany's naval attempt to cut off British supply ships by using u-boats. Caused Britain and the US to officially join the war after their ships were sunk. After this battle, the Allies won control of the seas, allowing them to control supply transfer.

island hopping

The Pacific campaigns of 1944 that where the American naval versions of Blitzkrieg. Was used to take back the Pacific

Fascism

A government policy that puts nation above individual and has a strong central government

Cash and carry

policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.

Appeasement (Munich Conference)

policy by which Czechoslovakia, Great Britain and France agreed to Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland in agreement for not taking any additional Czech territory. Czechoslovakia would give up Sudetenland and Germany would promise to not fight for more territory in Europe. However the appeasement was known for betrayal, weakness, and surrender, because nobody stopped Hitler and he could easily took over Czechoslovakia.

Non-aggression pact

1939-Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland

blitzkrieg

German war tactic in WWII involving the concentration of air and armored firepower to punch and exploit holes in opposing defensive lines.

Lend-Lease

allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."

Pearl Harbor

United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.

Battle of Coral Sea

A battle between Japanese and American naval forces that stopped the Japanese advance on Australia.

Midway

Important battle, broke Japanese supremacy in Pacific, Stalled Japanese offensive

Stalingrad

City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union.

D-Day

Jun 6, 1944, the day of the first paratroop drops and amphibious landings on the coast of Normandy, France in the first stage of operation overlord during WWII

Battle of the Bulge

final German offensive in West; Hitler's reserves in Belgium and Luxembourg; Germany made bulge in Allied force line, but recovered and repelled Germans, clearing path -> Berlin

Yalta Conference

FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War

Potsdam Conference

Statement issued by the United States during a meeting of U.S. President Harry Truman, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin in which the US declared its intention to democratize the Japanese political system and reintroduce Japan into the international community.

Holocaust

A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.

Hiroshima

City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.

Nagasaki

Japanese city devastated during World War II when the United States dropped the second atomic bomb on Aug 8th, 1945.

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Adolf Hitler

This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.

Benito Mussolini

Fascist leader of Italy from 1922-45. Originally a Socialist, he was an early member of the Black Shirts, Italy's fascist party. He led the overthrow of the Italian government in 1922 and led Italy through WWII. He was assassinated in 1945.

African Americans during WWII

Found jobs plentiful and migrated north

Women During WWII

many took factory jobs once held by men

War Productions Board

The purpose of the board was to regulate the production and allocation of materials and fuel during World War II in the United States. It rationed such things as gasoline, heating oil, metals, rubber, paper, and plastics.

War Labor Board

(WLB) settled disputes between business and labor without strikes so that production would not be interrupted and morale would be high

Manhattan Project

code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II

Japanese American internment

forced movement of Japanese Americans into camps during WWII

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: a federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions

Fireside chats

The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.

New Deal

President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life.

Securities and Exchange

independent agency which holds primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges; regulates stock market

Southern Economic Development Council

...

Tennessee Valley Authority

A New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley . It created many dams that provided electricity as well as jobs.

Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act

a law, enacted in 1930, that established the highest protective tariff in U.S. history, worsening the depression in America and abroad.

Dust Bowl

Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.

Shantytown

Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard. Also called Hovervilles after the unpopular president.

Soup kitchen

place where food is provided to the needy at little or no charge used in the Great Deppresion by privat

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

Created in 1932 to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression. It was later used to finance wartime projects during WW II. Created by the Herbert Hoover Administration

Agricultural Adjustment Act

Recovery: (AAA); May 12, 1933; restricted crop production to reduce crop surplus; goal was to reduce surplus to raise value of crops; farmers paid subsidies by federal government; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in US vs Butler on January 6, 1936

Civilian Conservation Corps

Relief: (CCC) March 31, 1933; reduced poverty/unemployment, helped young men and families; young men go to rural camps for 6 months to do construction work; $1/day; intended to help youth escape cities; concerned with soil erosion, state/national parks, telephone/power lines; 40 hr weeks

National Industrial Recovery Act

A New Deal legislation that focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. The NIRA pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created the NRA.

Works Progress Administration

(FDR) WPA 1935, , May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.

National Youth Administration

(FDR) , (NYA)1935, provided education jobs counseling and recreation for young people. part time positions at schools for students allowed for aid in h.s. college and grad school. part time jobs for drop outs

Social Security Act

guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health

National Labor Relations Board

Created by the National Labor Relations Act, also known as the Wagner Act it was created in the 1930's by congressman Wagner who was sympathetic to labor unions. The National Labor Relation Board was an administrative board that gave laborers the rights of self-organization and collective bargaining.

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