Geography Final

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Which of the following was the first highly developed country in East Asia, significantly ahead of any other East Asian state in its level of economic development?

Japan

The ancient Chinese city of _______ is seen by the Chinese as having eclipsed Rome as center of sophistication.

Xian

The country that has functioned as a buffer state between Russia and China is:

Mongolia

The Chinese name for the Yellow River is the:

Huang He

The primate city and capital of South Korea is:

Seoul

The Long March was a series of battles and retreats conducted by Communist Party forces led by _____________.

Mao Zedong

The __________ was a Chinese program that reorganized agricultural peasants to encourage industrialization but ultimately resulted in a disrupted food production that caused over 20 million to die of starvation.

Great Leap Forward

Which of the following was NOT a result of the One-Child Policy in China?

An increased preference for female children

he most populated Southeast Asian nation is:

Indonesia

In 1898, the Spanish were replaced as colonial leaders in the Philippines by the:

Americans

The dominant religion of both Indonesia and Malaysia is:

Islam

Which city was the capital of South Vietnam before the 1976 reunification of the country?

Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City)

The country that historically was called Siam is now known as:

Thailand

Which of the following rivers provides Myanmar (Burma) with its chief internal water route?

Irrawaddy

Which city is located closest to Southeast Asia's vitally important Strait of Malacca?

Singapore

he Indonesian island of ________ is one of the world's most densely settled and intensively cultivated areas.

Jawa

The Indonesian portion of the island of ________ is known as Papua.

New Guinea

During the reign of Pol Pot in __________, the Khmer Rouge killed as many as 2 million people.

Cambodia

On December 26, 2004, nearly 300,000 people in coastal areas surrounding the Indian Ocean died from this kind of natural disaster:

Tsunami

This island is divided between the countries of Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei:

Borneo

Which of the following is an example of an elongated state:

Vietnam

Southeast Asia's only landlocked country is:

Laos

This country seceded from Malaysia in 1965 and used a focus on international banking, communications and tourism to become one of the world's wealthiest states:

Singapore

The largest city in Australia is:

Sydney

The major core of population is located on ______ portion of the Australian continent.

east and southeast coast

Which of these is NOT a state of the Australian federal government system?

New Zealand

Australia's agriculture has long been known for its tremendous herds of:

Sheep

The largest urban area in New Zealand is:

Auckland

The topography of New Zealand can be generalized as:

Rugged mountains

By signing a treaty with the British in 1840, this group has managed to maintain a strong legal standing in New Zealand:

Maori

_________ forces tie a nation together.

Centripetal

A country that was divided into two political units after World War II was:

Germany

Which of the following European countries is landlocked?

Switzerland

Which of the following is not a portion of the United Kingdom?

Republic of Ireland

Which of the following is not a Nordic country?

Malta

The European region that has undergone the greatest political changes in recent years is:

Eastern Europe

The __________ built an empire that stretched around the Mediterranean Sea, founding cities and connecting much of Europe with a durable system of roads and aqueducts.

Romans

Which of the following were NOT brought to Europe by the Roman Empire?

Cyrillic alphabet

The first country to experience the Industrial Revolution was

The United Kingdom

A majority of immigrants moving to Europe are followers of:

Islam

The chief political and economic architect of the 1917 Russian Revolution that created the Soviet Union was:

Lenin

Which of the following is not a former Soviet Socialist Republic?

Georgia

Which of the following physiographic subdivisions contains the national heartland (and Moscow)?

the Russian Plain

The modern Russian state, which began as a forest-based empire launched by Czar Ivan the Terrible, was centered in the city of:

Leningrad

Russia today is governed by a _________ system.

federal

The ________ River is most closely associated with the region known as the Povolzhye.

Volga

Which of the following cities is located closest to the Kuzbas Region?

Novosibirsk

The region your textbook refers to as "Russia's Freezer" is:

Siberia

An island with significant oil potential that may prove to change the economic geography of the Russian Far East is

Sakhalin

Remote prisons in the Russian wilderness, used during Soviet times to house political prisoners, were known as:

Gulags

A city built by Czar Peter the Great, designed as a westward military presence, is today known as:

St. Petersburg

This policy of the Soviet Empire resulted in substantial ethnic Russian minorities still existent in non-Russian, now independent republics.

Russification

Which of the following cities is NOT considered to be part of the Russian core?

Vladivostok

The United States is approximately _________ times larger than Canada in terms of population.

10

The major mountain chain of the eastern United States is the:

Appalachians

Which of the following cities is not located on one of the Great Lakes?

Pittsburgh

Blacks today constitute about ______ percent of the United States' population.

13

Which city is located closest to the Canadian capital of Ottawa?

Toronto

About ___ percent of Quebec's population speaks French as a first language.

80

Which of the following is not a corner city of the American Manufacturing Belt?

St. Louis

Which state is located in the U.S. Corn Belt?

Iowa

Which city bills itself as the "Gateway to Latin America"?

Miami

. The Pacific Hinge is called a "hinge" because:

it represents a gateway to Asia and the Pacific Rim

An example of a "rain shadow effect," where air is dried by being lifted over mountainous landforms, can be found in what area of North America?

The Great Lakes

Which city is generally NOT considered to be a part of Megalopolis?

Buffalo

One effect of inner-city revitalization is _________, which improves crumbling neighborhoods but also displaces low-income residents.

Gentrification

Two former colonial entities (one Portuguese, the other British, respectively) that reunited with China during the late 1990s are:

Macau and Hong Kong

Which of the following is false concerning the western interior of China?

much of the area is a flat plain

The country of the "people of Han" is:

China

The Han Dynasty:

was a pivotal and formative period in Chinese history, when the Chinese sphere of influence was enlarged, land reform occurred, and external trade commenced

Mao Zedong's proclamation creating the communist People's Republic of China was announced in:

1949

China's largest city is:

Shanghai

China's current population is closest to:

1.1 billion

Discuss linkages between East Asia's physiography and (1) the densely populated core of eastern China, as well as (2) China's sparsely populated interior.

(1) Rich alluvial valleys in the east make for productive farming, as does the region's wetter, and (in places) its milder climate. (2) China's interior is far drier than its eastern core due to the drying effects that the region's mountainous uplands have on moisture-laden air masses from the south.

Explain why China's Mao Zedong opposed population control during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Describe China's population policy today, noting both its success and its negative consequences.

Mao believed that a large population was critical to the success of young communist countries, and that population control initiatives were a western, capitalist attempt to undermine communist countries. China's one-child policy, enacted in 1979 limits families to one child under penalty of increased taxes, loss of housing, or other punishments, though there are exceptions made for some rural families, and more recently for some urban families. While this policy has slowed population growth in China considerably, it has also brought a rise in selective and non-selective abortions and infanticide, particularly in the case of girls. Consequently, the gap between numbers of men and women in China is growing.

Explain the reason for the existence and persistence of the division between North and South Korea.

Following World War II and the defeat of Korea's occupiers, the Japanese, the Korean peninsula was divided for reasons of post-war administration between the Soviet-managed north and the US-managed south. The Korean War tested and ultimately reaffirmed that boundary as the division between two distinct countries.

Earthquakes are always devastating to population centers, both in terms of property destruction and loss of life. Yet Tokyo is particularly vulnerable to the risks associated with its next large earthquake. Why do some predict that Tokyo's next "big one" will be so terribly catastrophic? Reasons: population, economics, urban structures,

Reasons include the following: (1) Compared to past earthquakes in and around Tokyo, the city and its population are far bigger. (2) The city is both a national and international economic hub, amplifying the potential economic consequences of an earthquake. (3) Ruptures along its now-extensive system of underground gas lines raise the risk of widespread fires. (4) Many of its buildings are built on fill, which unlike solid rock is subject to considerable movement during earthquakes (liquefaction), leading to the collapse of greater numbers of buildings.

The funnel-shaped connection between North America and South America, extending from Mexico through Panama to Colombia, is an example of:

a land bridge

The core area of the Aztec state was located in the:

Valley of Mexico

Which of the following islands exhibits a British colonial heritage?

Jamaica

The island containing Haiti and the Dominican Republic is known as:

Hispaniola

The Yucatán Peninsula is part of the country of:

Mexico

Which of the following countries contains the heart of the ancient Mayan empire?

Guatemala

This kind of agricultural settlement, found in the rimland of Spanish Middle America, specializes in the production of a commercial crop, and is hence vulnerable to fluctuations in world market prices.

Hacienda

American-owned factories located near the U.S.-Mexico border, but on the Mexican side to take advantage of cheap labor and free trade offered by NAFTA are acalled:

Maquiladoras

The most stable Democratic republic in Central America is:

Panama

The attitudinally controlled climate zone found between 750 m (2500 ft) and 1800 m (6000 ft) holds the largest populaton clusters in Middle and South America. This zone is known as the:

Tierra Templada

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