when one person is talking to him or herself the kind of communication we do most often.
when one person is talking to a whole bunch of people at one time through a medium
when one person is talking to a whole bunch of people all at the same time directly
speaker is sending a message to the listener the listener is responding with feedback (words, mumbling, non-verbal), all of this communication is happening through channels. There are four channels used to communicate...hearing,visual,touch,and smell. interference interferes with your four channels. last component of the model is the situation which is for ex. face to face, hot or cold room, in or outside...it is also the relationship between speaker and listeners.
anything that blocks or hinders the accurate communication of a message. there are three types.
arises outside the listener: someone coughing, a baby crying, people talking loudly in the hall, or an air-conditioning break down that leaves the listeners hot and sticky and preoccupied with their discomfort.
comes from within the listener. some listeners might be daydreaming or worrying about a personal problem. some might be too tired to expend mental energy on listening. as a speaker, you can help listeners overcome internal distractions by making your speech so lively and interesting that the audience feels compelled to listen to you.
occurs when the speaker uses words that are unfamiliar to the audience, or that are interpreted in a way that the speaker did not intend. if the speaker wears bizarre clothing, some listeners might scrutinize the attire instead of concentrating on the speech.
reasons for nervousness
fear of being stared at
fear of failure
fear of rejection
fear of the unknown
a hormone, triggered by stress, that stimulates hear, lungs, and muscles and prepares the body for "fright, flight, or fight"
Kinds of Questions
-Fill in the blank
the technical language of a group or profession; "interface" or "virtual reality" ex. bite the bullet if must use explain or illustrate each term.
the broad objective of a speech; what is the point of your speech there are only three choices, to inform, persuade, or entertain.
giving new information to your listeners. define a concept or explain a situation, or demonstrate a process.
convince listeners to come over to your side, to adopt you point of view. To change then in one or both of these ways: change their minds or change their behavior.
a sentence that needs to inform, persuade, or entertain; the precise goal that a speaker wants to achieve ex. at the end of my speech my audience will...be able to make a cake.
a thesis statement, its the entire speech summarized in one sentence; the key concept of a speech.
facts about people, race, ethinicity, gender, sex, education, etc. things that you can record about people
audiences knowledge and opinions; things we can record about their minds, knowledge and opinions.
Verbal Aid vs. Visual Aid
Verbal aids primary focus is words and a visual aids primary focus is visual.
What is going to go 1st, 2nd, 3rd...
-Spatial (how things are organized in space physically)
an expression that links ideas and shows the relationship between them; words, phrases, or sentences that show logical connections between ideas or thoughts. types: bridges, internal summaries, signposts, and spotlights.
connect the previous information with the next information; a transitional device that links what went before with the next part of a speech.
when you finish an important section in a speech you may want to summarize the key ideas you talked about; a concise review of material covered during the body of a speech.
ex. first, second, last, etc..; tells listeners where they are or where they are headed; an explicit statement of the place that a speaker has reached.
transitional devices, they emphasize important information; a device that alerts listeners to important points; ex. what im telling you know will help you understand the rest of the speech.
Kinds of Attention Devices
Something that grabs our attention; hypothetical illustration, rhetorical question, overt-response question, make a provocative statement, cite a quotation, arouse curiosity.
intro and conclusion relationship
An intro is just a conclusion in reverse and the other way around.
Component of intro; get the audience ready to listen orient them to the speaker so why should they listen and to the topic why should they care about the topic
Component of conclusion; exactly what the preview is but change the verb tense from present to past ex. today you will learn today you have learned.
Component of conclusion; the final statement in a speech that drives home the key concept of the speech
interview, surveys, find out exactly who the listeners are and what they know; collecting information about audience characteristics.
make the speech to the listeners' knowledge level and to their needs and outlooks; adjusting one's material and delivery to meet listeners' needs.
Developing your Speech/Focus
start broad then to something very specific pyramid:
What part of the Speech to write first
You write the body of the speech before the intro and conclusion.
you plan out every idea but not every word and deliver it from cue cards (brief notes)
um and uh. when you are talking and you don't know whats coming next so instead of pausing you fill it in with um, uh, like etc...
elements of the voice