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Intrapersonal communication

when one person is talking to him or herself the kind of communication we do most often.

Interpersonal communication

second most common; between two people

small group communication

ex. conventions; church meetings

organizational communication

ex. heirarchys

mass communication

when one person is talking to a whole bunch of people at one time through a medium

public communication

when one person is talking to a whole bunch of people all at the same time directly

Shannon-Weaver Model

speaker is sending a message to the listener the listener is responding with feedback (words, mumbling, non-verbal), all of this communication is happening through channels. There are four channels used to communicate...hearing,visual,touch,and smell. interference interferes with your four channels. last component of the model is the situation which is for ex. face to face, hot or cold room, in or outside...it is also the relationship between speaker and listeners.

Interference

anything that blocks or hinders the accurate communication of a message. there are three types.

external interference

arises outside the listener: someone coughing, a baby crying, people talking loudly in the hall, or an air-conditioning break down that leaves the listeners hot and sticky and preoccupied with their discomfort.

internal interference

comes from within the listener. some listeners might be daydreaming or worrying about a personal problem. some might be too tired to expend mental energy on listening. as a speaker, you can help listeners overcome internal distractions by making your speech so lively and interesting that the audience feels compelled to listen to you.

speaker-generated interference

occurs when the speaker uses words that are unfamiliar to the audience, or that are interpreted in a way that the speaker did not intend. if the speaker wears bizarre clothing, some listeners might scrutinize the attire instead of concentrating on the speech.

feedback

verbal and nonverbal responses that the listeners give the speaker.

verbal feedback

when a listener asks questions or makes comments during a lecture.

nonverbal feedback

ex. smiling, nodding, frowning, yawning etc.

reasons for nervousness

fear of being stared at
fear of failure
fear of rejection
fear of the unknown

adrenaline

a hormone, triggered by stress, that stimulates hear, lungs, and muscles and prepares the body for "fright, flight, or fight"

positive nervousness

converting your anxiety into constructive energy; useful energy

hearing

the process by which sound waves are received by the ear

listening

the act of interpreting and evaluating what is being said

Listening Rate/Reading Rate

at or over 500 words a minute

Speaking Rate

at about 150 words a minute

Kinds of Questions

-Yes/No
-Scale
-Multiple Choice
-Checklist
-Open-ended
-Ranking
-Fill in the blank

Jargon

the technical language of a group or profession; "interface" or "virtual reality" ex. bite the bullet if must use explain or illustrate each term.

General Purpose

the broad objective of a speech; what is the point of your speech there are only three choices, to inform, persuade, or entertain.

To inform

giving new information to your listeners. define a concept or explain a situation, or demonstrate a process.

To persuade

convince listeners to come over to your side, to adopt you point of view. To change then in one or both of these ways: change their minds or change their behavior.

To entertain

aimed at amusing your audience. it is light, fun and relaxing.

Specific Purpose

a sentence that needs to inform, persuade, or entertain; the precise goal that a speaker wants to achieve ex. at the end of my speech my audience will...be able to make a cake.

infinitive

a verb form beginning with "to"

Central Idea

a thesis statement, its the entire speech summarized in one sentence; the key concept of a speech.

Audience

the most important part of the public speaking situation

demographics

facts about people, race, ethinicity, gender, sex, education, etc. things that you can record about people

psychographics

audiences knowledge and opinions; things we can record about their minds, knowledge and opinions.

Principle of Efficiency

Use a visual aid if and only if it is more efficient than words alone.

Verbal Aid vs. Visual Aid

Verbal aids primary focus is words and a visual aids primary focus is visual.

Verbal Aid

Primary focus is words

Visual Aid

Primary focus is visual

Rules for Visual Aid Use

-big
-bold
-simple

Organizational patterns

What is going to go 1st, 2nd, 3rd...
-Chronological
-Spatial (how things are organized in space physically)
-Topical

Transitions

an expression that links ideas and shows the relationship between them; words, phrases, or sentences that show logical connections between ideas or thoughts. types: bridges, internal summaries, signposts, and spotlights.

Bridges

connect the previous information with the next information; a transitional device that links what went before with the next part of a speech.

internal summaries

when you finish an important section in a speech you may want to summarize the key ideas you talked about; a concise review of material covered during the body of a speech.

Sign Posts

ex. first, second, last, etc..; tells listeners where they are or where they are headed; an explicit statement of the place that a speaker has reached.

Spotlights

transitional devices, they emphasize important information; a device that alerts listeners to important points; ex. what im telling you know will help you understand the rest of the speech.

Kinds of Attention Devices

Something that grabs our attention; hypothetical illustration, rhetorical question, overt-response question, make a provocative statement, cite a quotation, arouse curiosity.

Hypothetical illustration

an imaginary scenario that illuminates a point.

Rhetorical question

A question asked solely to stimulate interest and not to elicit a reply.

Overt-response question

a question asked to elicit a direct, immediate reply.

Introductions

-Attention Device
-Orientation
-To Speaker
-To Topic
-Preview

Conclusions

-Summary
-Wrap Up
-signal the end
-repeat importance
-Clincher

intro and conclusion relationship

An intro is just a conclusion in reverse and the other way around.

Orientation

Component of intro; get the audience ready to listen orient them to the speaker so why should they listen and to the topic why should they care about the topic

Preview

Component of intro; a list of main points; the central idea and preview are the same thing.

Summary

Component of conclusion; exactly what the preview is but change the verb tense from present to past ex. today you will learn today you have learned.

Clincher

Component of conclusion; the final statement in a speech that drives home the key concept of the speech

What may be on your notecards

ONLY:
-keywords
-phrases
-symbols

Analyze

interview, surveys, find out exactly who the listeners are and what they know; collecting information about audience characteristics.

Adapt

make the speech to the listeners' knowledge level and to their needs and outlooks; adjusting one's material and delivery to meet listeners' needs.

Occasion

ex. hot or cold, in or outside; relationship to audience.

Developing your Speech/Focus

start broad then to something very specific pyramid:
-topic
-general purpose
-specific purpose
-central idea

Topic

Broad idea

Main Points

-3-5 points
-one idea each
-parallel language

What part of the Speech to write first

You write the body of the speech before the intro and conclusion.

appearance

dress one level more than your audience

denotation

dictionary definition

connotation

applied definition; what implied meaning does the word have

four methods (modes) of speaking

-impromptu
-memorized
-manuscript
-extemporaneous

impromptu

means winging it; no prep

extemporaneous

you plan out every idea but not every word and deliver it from cue cards (brief notes)

memorized

every word is planned out; the script is memorized

manuscript

every word is planned out; and read from a script

intonation

variation in pitch

pauses

illustrate a point as long as they are intentional and purposeful

disfluencies

um and uh. when you are talking and you don't know whats coming next so instead of pausing you fill it in with um, uh, like etc...

elements of the voice

-projection
-articulation
-pronunciation
-pitch
-intonation
-volume
-rate
-pauses
-disfluencies

Physical delivery

-eye contact
-gestures
-movement
-appearance

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