What are the characteristics of living things?
Characteristics of living things are cellular organization, chemicals of life, energy use, response to surroundings, growth and development, and reproduction. The needs of living things are water, food, living space, and stable internal conditions.
How do you write a scientific name?
To write a scientific name, you first write the genus of the organism, and capitalize the first letter. Then, you write the species, which is all lowercase. If you are typing it, then the scientific name should be italicized, if you are writing it, then underline the name.
What is taxonomy?
The science of how living things are classified.
What are the levels of classification?
The levels of classification (from most general to most specific) are: Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.
What is the difference between a stimulus and a response?
A stimulus is what causes an animal to react, and a response is the reaction to the stimulus.
What is the difference between growth and development?
Growth is when an organism gets larger, and development is when an organism becomes more complex.
What is the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph?
An autotroph makes its own food, while heterotrophs get their food from other organisms.
What domain contain only prokaryotes?
Bacteria and Archaea
What is the life cycle of an angiosperm?
1. Flowers are produced
2. Pollen and eggs are produced by the flower
3. Pollen grains are trapped on the stigma
4. The pollen grain grows a pollen tube, and the egg is fertilized by the pollen
5. The ovule turns into a seed.
6. Ovary turns into a fruit, which helps with seed dispersal
7. The seed grows into a new plant
What structures do the amoeba, euglena, and paramecium use to move?
Amoeba - pseudopods
Paramecium - cillia
Euglena - flagella
What are the parts of the seed?
Seed coat, cotyledon, and embryo
What are the female parts of the flower?
Pistil, made of stigma, style, and ovary
What are the male parts of the flower?
Stamen, made of anther and filament
What are the characteristics of angiosperms?
They make fruit, and they reproduce with flowers (pollen and eggs)
What is the function of fungi in the environment?
It decomposes things, indicates pollution, provides food for other organisms, fights disease, causes disease, lives in symbiosis with other organisms
How are fungi and animals related?
They are heterotrophs, they are multicellular, they store their food as glycogen, the reproduce sexually, and they are eukaryotes
What are the function of hyphae in fungi?
They are clear thin tubes that make up the main body of the fungi. Substances move quickly and freely through hyphae.
What is chlorophyll?
Chlorophyll is the chemical pigment inside the chloroplast of a plant. It is what makes plants green.
What are the products of photosynthesis?
Oxygen and glucose
What are the reactants of photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide and water
What is the storage in the cell?
What is cellular respiration?
The process in which mitochondria break down simple food molecules and convert them into energy.
What are stomata?
Openings on the underside of plant leaves that let in carbon dioxide and let out oxygen and water vapor.
What is the purpose of the cuticle on a plant?
It reduces transpiration of water from the leaves
What are the structures inside a plant that allow transportation of materials?
The two parts of the vascular tissue, the xylem and the phloem, help transport materials through the plant.
What is the purpose of the mitochondria?
Break down food molecules and turn them into energy
What is the purpose of the chloroplast?
Absorbs sunlight and performs photosynthesis
What are the two phases of respiration?
In the cytoplasm, which releases a small amount of energy without using oxygen, and in the mitochondria, which releases a large amount of energy using oxygen.
What structure releases the greatest amount of energy during photosynthesis?
What is the cell theory?
A theory that says that all organisms and plants are made of cells, cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things, and all cells are produced from other cells.
What are some examples of active transport?
Transport proteins and engulfing
What is the difference between active and passive transport?
Active transport requires cellular energy, while passive transport doesn't
What are some examples of passive transport?
Diffusion and osmosis
What are the 4 stages of mitosis?
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, in that order
What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
During meiosis, during interphase, the DNA doesn't duplicate, and sex cells are formed
Why do sex cells have only half the amount of chromosomes of body cells?
Sex cells have only 1/2 the DNA because when male and female sex cells combine, the result has a full set of chromosomes
What is cross pollination?
When one flower's pollen fertilizes another flower's egg
When is self pollination?
When a flower fertilizes itself?
What base pairs bind in DNA?
Adenine binds to thymine, and guanine binds to cytosine.
What is a Punett Square?
A 2X2 chart that shows the possible outcomes of offspring from 2 parents
What is the difference between a gene, a chromosome, and DNA
A gene is a small part of a chromosome, and a chromosome is a part of DNA
What is the shape of DNA?
What is the difference between a genotype and a phenotype?
A genotype is the genetic makeup of a gene, and a phenotype is what the trait looks like
What is a carrier?
A person who has one recessive gene allele for a trait and one dominant allele. A carrier of the trait controlled by the recessive allele doesn't have that trait
What is the difference between a hybrid and a purebred?
A hybrid is an organism bred with 2 different traits, and a purebred is an organism bred with 2 of the same.
What is the genotype for a male?
What is the genotype for a female?
What is a sex linked trait?
A gene that is found on the X or Y chromosome.