Define the following terms: luminosity, protostar, nebular hypothesis, inertia, gravity, nebula, rotation vs. revolution.
Luminosity = The brightness of a star as compared to other stars.
Protostar = A stage of a star after the begging of the collapse of the nebula it was created from.
Nebular Hypothesis = The theory that the solar system formed from a mass of nebular matter.
Inertia = The property that states that an object in space will continue along the same track at the same velocity if it is acted upon by no outside force.
Gravity = The force that says that objects will pull other objects of a smaller mass towards them.
Nebula = A cloud of interstellar gas and dust.
Rotation vs. Revolution = Rotation is the movement of a celestial body around its own axis while revolution is the movement of one celestial body around another. One rotation is a day and one revolution is a year.
What is the relationship between the color of a star and its temperature?
The brighter the star, the hotter it is. For instance a white star is much hotter then a red one.
Betelgeuse, a supergiant in the constellation of Orion has about 800 times the radius of the sun. Is it considered cooler or hotter then a blue star? Does it have a higher absolute magnitude then our sun?
It is considered cooler then a blue star. It would have a higher absolute magnitude then our sun.
Our sun is classified as what type of star?
A yellow, main sequence star.
Is Betelgeuse older or younger then our sun?
It is older.
The study of wavelengths of light is called:
True or False: Each element gives off its unique spectrum. Why is it true or false?
It is true because when light passes through hot, incandescent gas, the gasses reflect in a certain wavelength of light.
How can scientists tell what kind of substances are in far-away stars?
By using a spectroscope the measure spectra of far away stars and then testing those spectra to see what elements are in that star.
Explain how we use red shift to explain how the universe is expanding.
Because, according to the Doppler Effect, as light shifts away from us, it moves towards the red end of the spectra. This is known as red shift.
Define the Big Bang Theory. Provide evidence for the Big Bang Theory.
The Big Bang Theory is the theory that the universe was once all a single dot and then it suddenly began expanding rapidly and the universe was created. Evidence for this are leftover radiowaves that are still moving throughout the universe.
Describe how the solar system formed (nebular hypothesis).
According to nebular hypothesis, the solar system formed from a mass of nebular matter.
The electromagnetic spectrum.
Discuss the difference between rotation and revolution.
Revolution is the movement of one body around another while rotation is the movement of one object around its axis.
Describe how a star is formed according to the nebular theory.
A star begins to form from a nubula. It is considered a star once it has begun to fuse elements together in its core. After that it stays as a star until the point that its core turns to all iron (when it stops fusing) and collapses.
Explain how we use red shift (in the spectrum) to determine that the universe is expanding.
The spectra that we would usually see would shift closer the the red end of the spectrum.
Describe the Doppler Effect and relate it to red shift.
The Doppler Effect states that light or sound's wavelengths will appear longer.
Know the H-R Diagram
Know the H-R Diagram.
What is the unit used to measure distance in space?