Earth Science Ch. 12

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Meteorology

study study of weather

weather

currrent state of the atmosphere

climate

the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time

air mass

a huge body of air that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height

air mass modification

the exchange of heat or moisture with the surface over which an air mass travels

Coriolis effect

The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.

trade winds

global wind system that occurs at 30 degrees latitude

prevailing westerlies

winds that blow west to east between 30 and 60 degrees in the northern and southern hemispheres

polar easterlies

Prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60degrees-90degrees latitude in both hemisphere.

jet stream

a high-speed high-altitude airstream blowing from west to east near the top of the troposphere

front

(meteorology) the atmospheric phenomenon created at the boundary between two different air masses

thermometer

measuring instrument for measuring temperature

barometer

an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure

anemometer

a gauge for recording the speed and direction of wind

hygrometer

measuring instrument for measuring the relative humidity of the atmosphere

ceilometer

instrument for measuring height of cloud ceiling above earth

radiosonde

a package of instruments that is carried aloft by balloons to measure upper atmosphere conditions, including temperature, dew point, and wind velocity

Doppler effect

change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other

station model

indicates weather conditions at a specific location, using a combination of symbols on a map

isopleth

Line drawn on a weather map that connects points of equal or constant values

digital forecast

weather forecast that uses numerical data to determine how atmosphereic variables change over time

analog forecast

invloves comparing current weather patterns to patterns that look place in the past

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