In a population, the sum of frequencies of all alleles for a particular trait is..
equal to 100%
The separation of populations by barriers such as rivers, mountains, and bodies of water is called..
when individuals at only one end of a curve of phenotype frequencies have high fitness, the result is..
if a mutation introduces a new skin color in a lizard population, what factor might determine whether the frequency of the new allele will increase?
whether the mutation makes some lizards more fit for their environment than other lizards
What might biologists consider a random change?
the gene shuffling that occurs as part of sexual reproduction in a large population..
does not change the gene pool's allele frequencies
genetic drift tends to occur in populations that..
the situation in which allele frequencies of a population remain constant is called..
which is the first step that occured in the speciation of galapagos finches?
arrival of the founding population
the two main ways new alleles can be introduced to a population are..
migration and mutations
One similarity between natural selction and genetic drift is that both events..
Change a populations allele frequencies
according to modern synthesis theory, evolution..
is any change in allele frequencies of a populations gene pool
random interbreeding among members of a population results in..
no changes in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool
the type of genetic drift that follows the colonization of a new habitat by a small group of individuals is called..
the founders affect
one of the conditions required to maintain genetic equilibrium is..
no movement into or out of the population
the genetic equilibrium of a population can not be disturbed by..
a large population size
the allele frequencies of a population are more likely to remain unchanged if..
all mating is random
A(an) ... is all of the genes that are present in a particular population
all the genes of all members of a particular population make up the population's ...
darwin noticed that many organisms seemed well suited to..
surviving in the enviroment they inhabited
on the galapagos islands, charles darwin observed..
somewhat similar species, with traits that suited their particular environment
in the 1800's, charles lyell emphasized that..
past geological events must be explained in terms of processes observable today
one scientist who attempted to explain how rock layers form and change over time was..
james hutton's and charles lyell's work was so important to darwin because these scientists..
suggested that the earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred
jean-baptiste lamark proposed that organisms..
have an innate tendancy toward perfection
lamarks theory of evolution includes the concept that new organs in a species appear as a result of..
the actions of organisms as they use or fail to use body structures
an organisms ablility to survive and reproduce in it's specific enviroment is called biological..
the economist tomas malthus suggested that..
there would soon be insufficient food for growing human populations
darwin was prompted to publish his theory of evolution by..
an essay by wallace on evolution
charles darwin's observation that finches of different species on the galapagos islands have many similar physical characteristics support the hypothesis that these finches..
descended from a common ancestor
when farmers select animals or plants to use for breeding, they look for..
natural variations that are present in a species
when a farmer breeds only his or her best livestock, the process involved is..
the number and location of bones of many fossil vertebrates are similar to those in living vertebrates. Most biologists wou;d probably explain this fact on the basis of..
a common ancestor
modern sea star larvae resemble some primitive vertebrate larvae. This similarity may suggest that primitive vertebrates..
share a common ancestor with sea stars
charles darwin viewed the fossil record as..
a detailed record of evelotion
charles darwin's theory of evolution does not explain...
how inherited traitss are passed from parent to offspring
What statement is in agreement with darwins theory of evolution?
more offspring are produced than can possibly survive
why might darwin have hesitated to publish his concept of evolution by natural natural selection?
he realized it changed fundemental scientific beliefs, such as the fixity of species
the domain ... contains plants, fungi, protists, and animals
for many species, there are often regional differences in their..
based on their names, you know that the baboons Papio annubis and Papio cynocephalus belong to the same..
often, the 2nd part of a scientific name is..
a latinized description of a particular trait
before linnaeus, scientific names were problematic because they were..
very long and difficult to standardize
a family is composed of a number of related..
several different classes make up a
the most general and largest category in the system that we use today is..
sometimes, organisms that are not closely related look similar because of..
what is true about dissimilar organisms such as cow and a yeast?
their degree of relatedness can be determined from their DNA
what does the presence of similar genes in very dissimilar organisms imply?
the organisms share a common ancestor
which kingdom contains heterotrophs with cell walls of chitin?
the domain that contains unicellular organisms that live in extreme enviroments is..
the three-domain system recognizes fundamental differences b/t 2 groups of..
what is thought to be true about the 3 domains of living things?
they diverged from a common ancestor before the evolution of the main groups of eukaryotes
unlike plant cells, animal cells do not have..
if a cell contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, it is..
an animal is multicellular, heterotropic, and eukaryotic but not..
which 2 kingdoms did linnaeus recognize?
plants & animals
in an evolutionary classification scheme, species within one genus should..
be more similar to one another than they are to species in other genera
Some scientists propose that the kingdom protista should be broken up into several kingdoms. What statement accuratly supports this idea?
Protista contain very diverse organisms that do not fit into the other kingdoms
in biology, an evolutionary innovation is also reffered to as a..
shared derived characteristic
eubacteria and archaea differ in..
the makeup of their cell walls
what statement is not true about archaea and eubacteria?
archaea and eubacteria can both cause disease in humans
some bacteria are able to survive in enfavorable conditions by forming..
a method called gram staining is used to tell..
what kind of cell wall a prokaryote has
humans use bacteria to..
clean up small oil spills, make food products, and sythesize antibiotics
vary greatly in size and structure
a lytic infection concludes with the..
bursting of the host cell
unlike lytic viruses, lysogenic viruses do not..
lyse the host cell right away
what is a way that bacteria cause disease?
by releasing toxins
bacteria that cause disease are called..
food stored in a refrigerator will keep longe because the bacteria that spoil food..
take longer to multiply at low temperature
what does not kill bacteria?
what is a proper use of disinfectants?
to serilize a hospital
viral diseases can be
prevented with vaccines but not treated with antibiotics
what is true about methanogens?
they are found in the intestines of animals, they produce methane, and they are killed by oxygen
halophiles tend to grow in a..
what groups are under the domain archaea?
the methanogens, the thermoacidophiles, and the halophiles
what bacteria would you find living in hot sulfer springs?
what are major producers?
the most abundant form of nitrogen on earth is..
In the nitrogen cycle, the organisms that take nitrogen gas from the air and fix it in compounds plants can use are..
what can change nitrates into nitrogen gas?
What is true about the immune system?
antibodies may be produced even though the pathogens do not cause disease symptoms, antibodies are specific for certain antigens on the pathogens that induced their formation, and it has a "memory"
immunity to a disease usually is not related to..
what can survive either with oxygen or without it?
what can be used to identify prokaryotes?
cell shape, the type of cell wall, and the way prokaryotes obtain energy
which is a member of the kingdom archaea?: methanogens, eukaryotes, eubacteria, e. coli
where are you likely to find a photoautotroph?
near the surfaces of lakes, streams, and oceans
unlike photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs obtain energy..
directly from inorganic molecules
what describes the role of bacteria in the enviroment?
carrying out photosynthesis, recycling nutrients, and fixing nitrogen
a viral capsid functions to..
bind the virus to the surface of the host cell
the instructions for making new copies of a virus are..
coded either in either RNA or DNA
what is the basic structure of a virus?
DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat
what characteristic of living things is not true about viruses?
obtain and use energy
the core of retroviruses contain ...
all protists accept some type of algae are..
the function of conjugation in paramecia is to..
exchange genetic material, thus increasing diversity of the population
protists living inside termites..
produce the enzyme that can digest cellulose
what is not true about euglenophyta?
they are parasitic
what is true about dinoflagellates?
they can cause red tide
phytoplankton are only found at the surface of the ocean waters because..
they require sunlight to carry out photosynthesis
giant kelp, the largest known species of algae, is a member of..
bacillariophyta are photosynthetic protists with..
the phylum of multicellular algae most likely to be observed at great depths is..
many algae switch back and forth between diploid and haploid stages during their life cycle in a process known as..
alternation of genertations
why are algae considered one of the most important groups of organisms on our planet?
they produce much of the earth's oxygen through photosynthesis
fungus-like protists get nutrients by..
absorbing them from dead or decaying matter
when the amoeba-like cells of slime molds fuse, they form structures called..
what triggers the aggregation of many slime mold individuals into one giant mass?
depleated food supply
all fungi are..
most fungi reproduce..
both sexually and asexually
yeast obtain energy by alcoholic fermentation in the absence of..
most mushrooms are classified as..
the common name for members of the phylum basidiomycota is derived from their shape and their..
in basidiomycetes, the mycelia of different mating types fuse to form..
dikaryotic fruiting body
penicillium is classified in group duetermycota because penicillium has..
no observed sexual phase
an important role of fungi in an ecosystem is..
breaking down dead organisms
fungi feed on..
both living and dead organisms
which of the following types of fungi are most similar to the one that causes athlete's foot
which of the following is not a single organism?: mushroom, mold , yeat, lichen
which statement about lichens is correct?
they are considered to be a pioneer species
the association of plants and fungi in mycorrhizae illustrates a type of relationship called..
in a mycorrhizal relationship, what benefit does the plant get from the fungus?
aid in the absorption of water and minerals
true or false: when you look at a mushroom, you are only seeing a very small fraction of the whole organism
the sporozoan plasmodium causes the disease known as..
what disease does the animal-like protist known as entamoeba cause?
an algal bloom is..
an enormous mass of algae
what characteristics of all plants is shared by green algae?
cell wall composition, photosynthetic pigments, and multicellularity
what characteristic distinguishes fungus-like protists from fungi?
fungi have cell walls made of chitin
sarcodines or amoebas use structures called ... for movement and for feeding
the fungus like protists that cause several serious plant diseases, including blights of potatoes and tomatoes, are the ...
spaces in the cell walls between hyphae allow the movement of ... among cells
in ascomycetes, the structure which forms spores is called a(an) ...
what proportion of all species that have ever lived has become extinct
how would you date a sample of rock that you suspect as being one of the earliest on earth?
use a radioactive isotope like uranium
fossilized evidence of earth's first forms of life would consist of..
why did oceans not exist on earth nearly 4 billion years ago?
water remained a gas because the earth was really hot
what is not a characteristic of earth before the oceans formed>
an atmosphere containing oxygen gas
Miller and Urey's experiments attempted to demonstrate..
whether organic molecules could have formed from inorganic components
what prevents organic molecules from forming on their own and remaining intact today?
atmosphere oxygen is too corrosive
one necessary condition for the evolution of the first life on earth was..
the presence of liquid water
proteinoid microspheres and coacervates are tiny bubbles that resemble cells because they..
have selectively permeable membranes
what was the response of the various groups of early organisms that existed when oxygen levels rose in the atmosphere? some life forms..
became extinct, survived only in a few airless habitats, and evolved metabolic pathways that used oxygen for respiration
which of these facts about mitochondria and cloroplasts consitute(s) support for the endosymbiotic theory?
their ribosomes resmeble the ribosomes of bacteria
what can be determined from radiometric dating that can not be determined from relative dating?
a more percise estimate of the fossils age
2 gasses that probably existed in earth's early atmosphere that are still present in earth's atmosphere today are..
water vapor and carbon dioxide
in stanly miller and harold urey's experiment, several ..., which are the building blocks of proteins, began to accumulate
unicellular ascomycetes are commonly know as ...
antibiotics are typically only effective against ... pathogens
the ... of a eubacterium is used to determine whether it is gram + or gram -
if 2 populations have been reproductivly isolated and an no longer interbreed and produce fertile offspring, a ... event has occured
speciation or divergant
to produce spores, all plants must undergo..
the 1st plants most likely evolved from..
an organism similar to multicellular green algae
because bryophytes do not have vascular tissue, they..
grow close to the ground
the immediate result of fertilization in mosses is a(an)..
Xylem Tissue is important to ferns b/c it..
can move water throughout the plant
seedless vascular plants
horsetails do not..
pollen grains are produced by..
female reproductive structures
in angiosperms, reproduction takes place in..
a pollen grain landing on the stygma of a flower produces a(an)..
after fertilization in mos angisperms, the ovary develops into a..
what is true about all seeds in nature?
all fruits contain seeds
a seed that vi9s disperced to an area far away from the parent plant might face less..
competition with the parent plants
the cotyledons of dicots are used as..
photosythesis takes place in the ... stage of the moss life cycle
... is the vascular tissue responsible for transporting water in vascular plants
xylem and phloem are not..
present in bryophytes
fern spores are..
produced by sori
seedbearing plants differ from all other plants in that..
their gametes dont require water for fertilization to occur
most gymnosperms reproductive structures all called..
the most ancient surving seed plants are..
which gymnosperms produce exposed seeds?
conifers, cycads, and ginkoes
an example of a monocat is a..
what is not a characteristic of all plants?
living on land required that plants..
what is true about bryophytes?
they draw up water by osmosis
Where would you most likely find moss growing?
a low shaded area near a small pond
What has a similar function to roots?
the number of seed leafs distinguishes..
two classes of angiosperms
unlike a dicot, a monocot has..
parallel leaf veins
flowering plants that complete a life cycle within a single growing season are called..
what did hershey and chase conclude after observing that the radioactuve phosphorus on the dna used in their experiment had been found in the bacteria?
genes are made of DNA
what is a nuecleotide found in DNA?
deoxyribose + phosphate group + cytosine
in eukaryotes, DNA..
is located in the nucleus
DNA replicaiton results in 2 DNA molecules...
each with one new strand and one with the original strand
During the DNA replication, a DNA strand that has the bases CTAGGT produces a new strand with the bases..
what type(s) of RNA is(are) involved in protein synthesis?
messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA
during transcription, an RNA molecule is formed..
that is complimentary to part of a single strand of DNA
how many bases are needed to specify 3 amino acids?
why is it possible for an amino acid to be specified by more than one codon?
there are 64 different kinds of codons but only 20 amino acids
What is NEVER a frameshift mutation?
Which of the following include all the others? DNA molecules, nucleosomes, nucleotides, and histones
All of the DNA in a cell is copied during the proccess called..
RNA contains the sugar..
how many main types of RNA are there?
What happens during the proccess of translation?
the cell uses information from messanger RNA to produce proteins
genes contain instructions for assembling..
True or False? the instructions for making some protiens are not specified by genes
a mutation that involves one nuecleotide is called a(an)..
a promoter is a..
binding site for RNA polymerase
who developed the first accurate model of DNA?
james watson & francis crick
the order of nitrogenous bases in DNA determines the order of ... in proteins
the tRNA bases called the ... are complementary to 3 consecutive nucleotides on 1 mRNA molecule
the 2 polynucleotide chains that make up a strand of DNA run in ... directions relative to eachother and therefore they are called ...
opposite , anti-parallel
During DNA replication the lagging strand of DNA molecule replicated in the ... direction of the unzipping
... bonds join base pairs on DNA
Were the first cells aerobic or anaerobic? How do we know?
Anerobic because there was no free oxygen in the atmosphere.
What was the sorce of the oxygen gas that began to accumulate in the atmosphere more than 2 billion years ago?
The source was photosynthetic cells that released oxygen
Describe 2 ways in which bacteria can be controlled.
Bacteria can be controlled by being refridgerated, which slows down the bacteria, or by being frozen, which stops the bacteria but does not kill them
Make an argument for why viruses should or should not be considered alive. There is no right or wrong answer as long as you make a compelling argument. (this is what I put and I received full credit)
They are not alive because they cannot maintain homeostasis, obtain and use energy, or grow. They lack 3 main things that are used to classify something as living. They do evolve and reproduce but they cannot reproduce independently.
Why might a geographic barrier such as a large river cause the formation of a new species of small rodents but not a new species of birds?
The rodents are no longer able to breed with the rodents on the other side of the river. The birds are still able to interbreed because they can fly over the river.
What is an adaptation?
An adaptation is a structure that helps an animal survive in its particular environment.
Give 2 reasons that explain why there are gaps in the fossil record?
1. We haven't found them 2. There has to be perfect conditions for fossilization
Give 1 example, other than the universal nature of DNA, of how genomes of different species can help us to understand evolutionary relationships between those species.
Our DNA is very similar to that of a monkeys DNA because our common ancestor was more recent. We can tell this because the DNA is 98% similar
What is a homologous structure and how are these stuctures evidence of a common decent?
It is a similar structure but it may be used for different purposes. It shows we still have the same bones as our common ancestor and species that are around today.
Assume that a geographic barrier that results in 2 very different egosystems splits a single population. What would likey happen to the 2 separate populations? Would this procces occur more quickly, less quickly, or at the same rate as it would if the 2 populations lived in similar ecosystems?
The two populations would change and evolve. The rate would occur less quickly if they lived in similar ecosystems.
What is the advantage for red algae of having other photosynthetic pigments other than clorophyll a?
The advantage is that they can be deeper in the water because they absorb light rays that penetrates further into the water.
What are the individual threads of a fungus called, and what structure do they form when they appear as a tangled mass? Why is this structure conducive to their ecological niche?
Hypha, micellium, large surface area to volume ratio for absorbing food and nutrients
Many organisms that live under similar ecological conditions evolve similar characteristics without being closely related. What are these characteristics called and what pattern of evolution does this phenomenon represent?
Analogous structures, convergent evolution
Were the first cells autotrophes or heterotrophs? How do we know?
Heterotrophs, photosynthesis is a very complicated process. It is easier to consume food around you than it is to make the food and then consume.
Shingles and Chicken Pox are both viral diseases caused by varicella-zoster herpes virus. Shingles usually occurs years after a person has had the chicken pox. Based on this information, what kind of infection cycle do you think the varicella-zoster virus has? Link the infection cycle to the appearance of shingles years after the initial infection with the virus.
The answer to this is much longer, but basically chicken pox has a lysogenic cycle and lies dormant in the cell, but at some point may be triggered into a lytic cycle causing shingles.
sporophyte embryo <2n> packed within food and encased in protective coat
define pollen grain
small structure reproduced by the male reproductive structure of a plant