Marginal desert/prairie grassland unsuitable for agriculture. Pastoral nomads (Mongols) lived here.
Ghenghis (Chinghis) Khan
Mongol conqueror, 1167-1227. Birth name was Temujin. Received title at the Grand Council.
Kublai (Kubilai) Khan
Mongol Great Khan and founder of the Yuan Dynasty of China.
Russian name for the Mongols (people from Hell).
Mongolian Peace, between c. 1250 and c. 1350 in most of Eurasia. Once the Mongols had settled into their conquered territories, new opportunities opened up for traders/merchants among the people they conquered. Trading was much safer when all the land was controlled by one ruler.
The Russia-based segment of the Mongol world empire.
Tale of Genji
The world's 1st novel, by court lady Murasaki Shikibu, 11th century. Tells about manners and customs of the Japanese aristocracy of the day.
Official term for the Mongol dynasty of the Great Khans in China, 1279-1368. Founded by Kublai Khan.
One of the four major dynasties established from the empire of Chinghis Khan. Founded by Hulegu, Chinghis's grandson, after he destroyed Abbasid rule in Baghdad.
The true head of Japanese government and the commander-in-chief of the imperial army.
Native Japanese animism, one of the two major religious belief systems of Japan. "The way of the gods," similar to Chinese Daoism. All natural objects possess a spirit (kami). Optimistic, no sacred book, no heaven or hell.
Time period of the beginning of organized large-scale government, 5th and 6th centuries. Noble clans ruled over commoners. Yamato was the biggest/most potent of the clans and founded the imperial family of the Japanese state.
Japanese warrior -aristocrats of medieval and early modern times.
The government of medieval Japan in which the shogun, a military and civil regent, served as the actual leader, while the emperor was the symbolic head of the state and religion.
Daimyo noble clan controlling the shogunate in 9th-12th century Japan. Intermarried with the Yamato. Continued the reforms of Prince Shotoku after his death.
Equal field system
Adopted from the Tang Dynasty, system in which land was frequently redistributed among the peasants to attempt to ensure equity. Japanese changed this to allow an individual to have transferable rights to a parcel of productive land no matter who tilled it.
The code of conduct for samurai
1) Gi: duty comes first
2) Yu: able tp sacrifice one's life for a cause/honor (seppuku- ritual suicide)
3) Jin: when not in duty, show compassion toward everyone
4) Re: correct behavior
5) Makoto: truthful when possible
6) Melyo: honor and glory
7) Chugo: devotion and loyalty
Time period marked by the complete domination of the country by the samurai and their overlords in the clan aristocracy. Power of imperial court declined. Political leadership depended on number of fighting men and resources to support them.
Parcels of productive land, sometimes including villages. Exempt from taxation. Originally created to support monasteries or reward servants of the emperor for good service.
A noble Japanese family that controlled political power as shoguns from the 1300s to the late 1500s. Minamoto clan could not afford an army to repel Mongols, so they lost power and Ashikaga took over.
Japanese nobles similar to dukes and counts of Europe. Varied in power and almost independent of shogun. Controlled feudal domains under the shogun.
Ancestors of present-day Cambodians, conquerors of Funan. Built great civilization centered on city of Anghor.
The original name of the Khmer state otherwise known as Cambodia, greatest of Southeast Asian mainland kingdoms.
A way of life prevalent in most steppelands. Characterized by nomadism and dependence on livestock breeding rather than on agriculture.