When researchers want a survey to be representative of all members of society they conduct:
A research approach that asks participants to describe their recent lifetime criminal activity is termed:
A Self-report survey
Richmond (Virginia) Police Department used ____ to identify and target locations associated with increased random gunfire during the previous year's New Year's Eve holiday in order to deploy police resources to those areas.
If criminologists want to see the direct effect of one factor or another, such as determining whether viewing a violent TV show will cause viewers to act aggressively, they conduct:
Validity issues the UCR. Which of the following best portrays the validity concerns for this date collection method?
Reporting practices, methodological problems, and law enforcement practices.
The "missing cases" phenomenon is a validity concern for which type of crime measurement?
According to UCR data, what change was evidenced in the estimated rate of violent crime from 2005 to 2006?
The estimated rate increased by 1 percent.
What is known about the relationship between the economy and crime?
All these statements are known about the relationship between the economy and crime.
When discussing future trends in crime, Steffensmeier and Harer believe the American culture will be greatly affected by baby boomers, now in their late 50s and 60s, who will:
Exert a significant influence on the nation's values and morals.
The phrase "the ecology of crime" refers to such factors as:
season and climate
Due to the amount of disposable income at this time, crime rates may be higher:
On the first day of the month
The highest crime rate is found in which regions of the country?
South and West
How is age correlated with crime?
Age is inversely related to crime - younger people commit more crime
According to the _______ hypothesis, the criminality of females is masked because of the generally benevolent and protective attitude toward women in our society.
Official arrest records indicate that African Americans are arrested at a higher rate than members of other racial groups. Self-report data:
Suggest arrest rate differences are an artifact of justice system bias.
Institutional racism undermines faith in social and political institutions and weakens confidence in the justice system. According to the ________, as the percentage of minorities in the population increases so too does the amount of social control that police direct at minority group members.
Racial threat hypothesis.
Which of the following sets of factors would not predict chronic offending?
parental supervision, average grades, school attendance
Criminologists who focus their attention on crime victims refer to themselves as:
Victims suffer stress and anxiety long after an incident is over. What is known about the long-term stress suffered by victims?
Childhood trauma, including rape and molestation, is significantly associated with visual, auditory, and tactile hallucinations.
Surveys of school crime indicate that victims are declining. What percentage of students experience a crime at school in a given year?
Referring to victims and their criminals, victims report that substance abuse is a factor in how many violent crime incidents?
Individuals who repeatedly experience victimization are termed:
Sibling homicide is known as:
What is known regarding repeat victimization/chronic victimization?
Most repeat victimizations occur soon after a previous crime has been committed.
Which ethnic group reports the highest rate of violent victimization?
Which of the following is least likely to be a characteristic of a high-risk lifestyle?
Participating in sport
The fact that some people's activities and behaviors increase their risk of victimization by increasing their potential to become "opportunities" for criminal offenders is the basis of what theory?
In routine activities theory, a large number of unemployed teenagers would be an example of:
According to routine activities theory, homes that contained easily salable objects such as laptop computers, stereos, and television sets would be classified as:
A local program to assist victims and witnesses with applying for compensation, transportation, crisis intervention, and other needs caused by a crime is known as:
A victim-witness assistance program
Which of the following is primary aim of victim-offender reconciliation programs?
Restitution agreements and reconciliation between the two parties
The victim's ability to address the sentencing judge and tell of his or experiences as a result of the victimization is known as a:
Victim's impact statement
Which of the following rights is not generally contained within states' victims' rights legislation?
The right to be protected from media coverage
Offenders may react selectively to the characteristics of an individual criminal act. For instance, the decision to commit a burglary may involve evaluating the target's likely cash yield. This crime would then be considered:
The view that criminals are not simply automatons, for one reason or another, engage in random acts of antisocial behavior reflects a crime that is:
Well-let housing projects that maximize surveillance reflect Oscar Newman's concept of _____ that suggests crime can be prevented via the use of residential architectural designs that reduce criminal opportunity.
When city officials and urban planners consider the characteristics of sites and situations that are risk for crime, the factors that attract people to these sites and situations, and what equips potential criminals to take advantage of the illegal opportunities offered by these sites and situations, they are engaging in a practice known as:
Situational crime prevention
The fact that caller ID features have significantly reduced the number of obscene phone calls is an example of what technique of situational crime prevention?
Situational crime prevention is not without its problems. When crime reduction programs redirect offenders to alternative targets, it is terms:
The theory of specific deterrence suggests that the harsher the punishment, the less likely the chance of recidivism. Is this so?
No, harsh punishments may actually increase offending rates.
The Kansas City, Missouri police department's study of patrol effectiveness, convinced criminologists that:
The mere presence of patrol officers on the street did not have a deterrent effect.
"Crackdowns" are sudden changes in police activity designed to lower crime rates through an increase in the communicated threat or actual certainty of punishment. What does research indicate about the effectiveness of crackdowns?
Research indicates all of these things (a, b, and c).
What do immediate impact studies indicate about capital punishment's deterrent effect on murder?
Impact studies indicated that the overall impact of executions might actually increase the incidence of homicide.
Research that contrasts the murder rates in jurisdictions that have abolished the death penalty with the murder rates in jurisdictions that employ the death penalty is called:
Criminologists argue that "three strikes" policies will not work because:
Such policies will not work for all these reasons.
After the famous Minneapolis domestic violence study, other studies and analyses have been conducted. Overall, what are the implications of these domestic violence studies?
These studies indicate that even if punishment can produce a short-term specific deterrent, effect, it fails to produce longer-term behavioral change.
Trait theoritst focus on ____ that are linked to antisocial behavior patterns.
Basic human behavior and drives
According to William Sheldon, who believed that criminals manifest distinct physiques, which somatotype was most likely to become criminal?
The study of the activities of several generations of families believed to have an especially large number of criminal members is the:
The belief that all humans are born with equal potential to learn and achieve is known as:
A number of environmental contaminants have been associated with emotional and behavioral disorders. Which of the following has been linked to aggressive behaviors on both a macro or national level and on a micro or individual level?
Which of the following statements pertaining to the link between lead and cirme is inaccurate?
The average blood lead level has increased over the past decade.
Biosocial theorists have evaluated the association between violent behavior episodes and hormone levels. Their findings suggest that abnormal levels of these male sec hormones influence the neocortex and have been linked to aggressive behavior.
It has been argued that declining levels of what hormone cause the aging-out process?
The onset of the menstrual cycle triggers excessive amounts of female sex hormones that affect antisocial, aggresive behavior. This condition is commonly referred to as:
Neurological deficits may interact with another trait or social condition to produce antisocial behaviors. Research conducted by Raine found that children who had experienced birth complications and who then experienced ____ were more likely to engage in criminal offending than children who did not experience these factors.
Explosive rage disorder is considered an important cause of spouse abuse, suicide, aggressiveness, and motiveless homicide. This disorder is a type of:
Minimal brain dysfunction
Why are left-handers disproportionately represented in the criminal population?
Due to rightward shifts in brain functioning resulting from high levels of androgens.
The notion that some individuals may engage in crime due to the attraction of "getting away with it" is known as:
Some researchers feel that what appears to be a genetic effect, evidenced in twin research, is actually the effect of sibling influence on criminality referred to as the:
According to Freud, the superego is the ____ aspect of one's personality.
Aichorn concluded that a psychological predisposition prepared youths for antisocial acts. This predisposition or mental state, labeled ____ is found in youngsters whose personalities require them to seek immediate gratification, to consider their own needs more important than others, and to satisfy instinctive urges withouth considering right and wrong.
The psychodynamic model of the criminal offender depicts an aggressive, frustrated person dominated by events that occurred:
during early childhood
The antisocial personality concept seems to mesh with what is known about chronic offending. What percent of chronic offenders exhibit sociopathic behavior patterns?
Some violent offeners have a disturbed character commonly referred to as pyschopathy, sociopathy, or antisocial personality. What is known about the psychopathic personality?
Children who lack the opportunity to form an attachment to a mother figure during the first three years of life are most likely to develope psychopathic personalities.
Social learning theory holds that people learn to be aggressive through their life experiences. Which of these is not a souce of this behavior modeling process?
Recent research on IQ and crime suggests that low IQ increases the likelihood of criminal behavior through its effect on:
What are the three branches of social structure theory?
Social disorganization theory, strain theory, cultural deviance theory.
Segments of the population whose members have a relatively similiar portion of desirable things and who share attitudes, values, norms and an identifiable lifestyle are known as:
Poverty during early childhood may have a more severe impact on behavior than poverty during adolescence or adulthood. What percent of American children live in poverty?
Members of the underclass who are socially isolated, live in urban inner cities, occupy the bottom rung of the social ladder, and are the victims of discrimination are known as:
the truly disadvantaged
Social disorganization theory focuses on which of the following conditions in the urban environment?
Inadequate social control and deteriorated housing
Poverty-ridden neighborhoods which suffer high rates of population turnover and are incapable of inducing residents to remain are known as:
The social disorganizational concepts of Shaw and McKay were developed over 75 years ago. Which of their findings are still applicable today?
All of these are still applicable today.
Social edologists know that people who report living in neighborhoods with high levels of crime and civil disorder become suspicious and mistrusting. Some residents become so suspicious that they develop a(n) ____ in which the outside world is considered the enemy out to destroy their neighborhood.
_____ is a characteristic of pre-industrial society, held together by traditions, shared values and unquestioned beliefs.
When individuals embrace conventional social goals and have the means at their disposal to attain them, this is known as:
The American Dream refers to what theory?
The thoery which holds that crime is a function of one's inability to achieve personal goals (such as earning money, owning a home, having a nice car) because society is stratified by socioeconomic class is called:
Agnew's General Strain Theory indicated that criminality is the direct result of _____ that come in the wake of destructive social relationships.
Negative affective states
The view, according to Robert Agnew, that individuals who feel stress and strain are more likely to commit crimes is called:
General Strain Theory
Who developed general strain theory?
Which fo the following is not an element of general strain theory?
Achievement of positively valued goals
The rules that govern day-to-day living conditions within a subculture are known as:
This occurs when the rules expressed in the criminal law clash with the demands of group conduct norms.
Cloward and Ohlin's theory of differential opportunity states that people in all strata of society share the same success goals but those in the lower class have limited means (opportunity) for achieving them. Because of differential opportunity, kids are likely to:
The process of human development and enculturation is known as:
In every level of the social structure, youths who fall in with a "bad crowd" become more susceptible to:
Criminal behavior patterns
A criticism of learning theories is that they fail to adequately explain:
Spontaneous acts of violence
According to Matza, ____ refers to the process of moving from one extreme of behavior to another. Further, this helps to explain why a youth's behavior may be law abiding sometimes and deviant at other times.
The view that becoming a criminal is a learning process in which potential delinquents master skills that enable them to counterbalance conventional values and drift back and forth between illegitimate and conventional behavior is known as:
Criminals sometimes neutralize wrongdoing by maintaining that the victim of crime "had it coming". This is known as:
Denial of victim
In his ___, pioneering control theorist Walter Reckless argued that a strong self-image insulates a youth from the pressures and pulls of criminogenic influences in the environment.
The theory that links the onset of criminality to the weakening of the ties that bind people to society is:
Social bond theory
Some people are labeled "criminal" by police and court authorities; labeled people are known as troublemakers and are shunned by conventional society. This is part of:
Social reaction theory
Labeling theorists use a/an ___ definition of crime.
This occurs when norm violations or crimes have very little influence on the actor and can be quickly forgotten.