CHpater 18 History

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18.1.1A Gilden Age

-years between 1865-00
-surface of america wealthy but glitter(gold)covered multiple sins
-crowded cities,mammoth bussiness,extreme wealth&poverty

18.1.1B deflation

-time between 65'-96'dollar buy more
-farmers&bussiness had to pay back loans in dollars that were worth more

18.1.1C inflation

-rise in supply of$>raising prices

18.1.1D cheap money

-borrowers demanded this during deflation
-money became cheaper when more of it

18.1.1E free silver

-borrowing$classes ordered demamded govt increase supply of silver dollars(inflation)

18.1.1F stalwarts

-old-fashion republic bosses who prevent civil reform commmision from progressing

18.1.1H Roscoe conkling

-leader of Stalwarts(opposed civil service bil)
-NY senator who's power based on spoils system

18.1.1 I alonzo cornell

-became gov of NY
-hayes asked to resign as naval officer bc spoils sys

18.1.1J half breeds

-party regulars frowned at them b/c only hald loyal to only time Rep. policies EX:for civil service,hnds off policy towards S

18.1.1K james blaine

-leader of Half breeds,"Plumed Night"b/c make any cause seem like noble crusade
-favored civil service reform

18.1.1L james garfield

-darka horse who won election(founght for union)loyal rep, with arthur as VP

18.1.1M hancock

in an attempt to prove loyal to union democrats nominated his as professional army officer
-recieved nomination from solidS

18.1.1.N guiteau

-crazyed Rep.loyalists shot garfield b/c name Conkling enemy as NY custom house inorder for Arthur to be P&returns to soils system

18.1.1 O pendleton act

-sponsored Civil service review cause Arthurs reform
-proposedwhen garfield P but his+Arthur Stalwarts
-officers in position have to be qualified

EXTRA: Hayes

-favored civil service reform(revivies)
-fires stalwarts/prevents spoils system
-financial concern
-pendelton act/vetoes Bland-Allison Act

EXTRA: Arthur

-former Stalwarts until Garfield murdered bc tried to prevent spoils system
-P afterGarfield
-in HOR prevents Hayes from accomplishing

18.2.1 A Mugwumps

-republicans slander for reformers who were pompous&self important(against Dem celveland)

18.2.1 B shelby cullom

-helped IL legislation pass RR regulation
-oversaw passage of Intersate Commerce Act

18.2.1 C front porch campign

-delegates visit Harrison &he'd make harmless short speeches promising help inreturn for vote

18.2.1 D czar reed

-Czar-another name for Blaine bc leader in congress who passed alot of important legisla during harrison
-Blaine forced ppl to obey R rule-prevented minority from blocking bills&gave speaker&majority power to push through program

18.2.1.E henry lodge.

-Republican rep of MA drew bill that allowed fed got to see to fair election bc S no let blacks vote
-Lodge bill passed

18.2.1.F filibuster.

-rules of senate allowed a senator to stop buss&prevent vote by talking endlesslessly&refusing to yield the floor
-used to block action of tariff that Rep wanted to pass

18.2.1 G billion dollar congress..

-depleted congress treasury,
voted funds for R&harbor improvement
-return fed taxes paid by N states during civil war

18.3.1 A patrons of Husbandry

-1st national farm organ.started by Kelley
-organized patrons as social&edu society

18.3.1 B Munn V. illinois

-against granger laws-SC uphelp IL law that set min.rate4grain storage
-police power gave state right to regulate private prop

18.3.1 C farmers' alliance

-formed after fall of granger,prices,pol parties
-in politics W formed parites,S worked w. Dem,
-success caused W farm to form pol. party>1voice>blacks&whites work together4reform

18.3.1D Mary lease

-"raise less corn&more hell" help farmers against $$

18.3. E Simpson

-"sockless jerry"bc when ran for congress accused opponent of wearing silk sock when he didnt were no

18.3.1.F Watson

-spoke for farmers in cong.

18.3.1.G Weaver

canidate for P in 92,populists

18.3.1.H. Coxey

-led army of worker to WA to publitize plight of poor

18.3.1.I Morgan

-most powerful banker,sell US bonds in europe4gold

13.3.1.J Tillman

-to ppl of SC(who elected his senator) that "cleveland is an old bag of beef&im going to WA with a ptich fork to prod him in his old fat ribs"

18.1.2 How did hayes respond to the RR strike of 77' Why?

-at request of state govenerors sent federal troops to protect property

18.1.3WHy did demands for cheaper money arise in 70's, Congresses response

-borrowing class who was going through deflation pushed for cheaper$
-more money(silver/green backs)>cheaper$
-congress passed bill limited coining of silver"Bland-Allison Act">Hayes veto>congress bypass

18.1.4 who favored civil service reform?steps towards it under Hayes reform?under arthur?

-stop spolils system employment,Schurz,Curtis,P Grant
-Hayes want abolish spoils system"gov employ can t work in parties campaigns&contributions"
-targeted NY customs house who collected 2/3 of nations tarriff revenue>asked member to resign
-arthur(laterVP) hayes enemy in his party,democrats control HOR>prevented his from accomplishing

18.1.5 how did tragedy hasten civil service reform?

-ppl outraged&wanted urgent assitance
-US shocked how Cockling henchmen in White house
-improved NY customs house,called for civil service reform(fliped)
-caused Civil Service BIll

18.2.2 Provisions of Interstate Commerce Act, What Abuses Designed to stop?

-banned rebates&favors given to powerful shippers
-new rates proportional to distance&public&inspectable>help solve problem of big bussiness
-B4 RR give low rate/rebates to big CO,when no competition rates increase,farmer idk rates($+)

18.2.3 How cleveland show determination to keep tight rein on GOV spending

-vetoed civil war pensions for undeserving ppl
-vetoed pension bill for veteran served ranks 90+day
-annual adress against high tariff that bussiness used to keep out forgein competit

18.1.4 Financial Concern under Hayes

-inflation,deflation>protests for more greenbacks/silver(Bland-Allison Act)
-RR strike(allowed to b.c protect prop)
-civil service bill

18.2.4. Why Rep want civil rights bill?why fail

...

18.2.5 How tariff&silver issues settled in 90s

-Tariff-Mckinley bill-raise duty on article produced outside of US&in competition(teas/drugs duty free)
-Sherman Silver Purchase Act-gove purchase4.5m ounces of silver p month(if pass mckinley)>helps farmers repay morgages

18.2.6 Efforts to end bussiness monopoy?How?Was it effective?why?

-Sherman Antitrust Act-punish restrains of commerce/trade
-crime for bussiness's to combine to limit comp.(uncless unless enforce)
-irregularly enforce bc if pres want to reelection cant offend powerful big CO

18.2.7Issue of election of cong. 90, Outcome?

-farmer prices fell&raising morgages,
-banks angry@silver purchase act-did not satisfy farm
-felt Roos. not stop spoils system
-ppl hate +spending/Mckinley raise prices overseas
-landslide win for Dem

18.2.8 election of 1876,80,84,90

76-Blaine(R)V(D)(win)
84celeveland(D)VHarrison(R)(win)
90-(congress)Dem win
92Harrison(R)Cleveland(Dwin)Weaver(populist)
96Bryan(D/pop) Mckinley(Rep)

18.3.2Problems farmers faced?Granger Solved?

-their product prices fell,constatanly borrow
-+ land to land lords+farmers become tenants
-+ produce - price
-granger members of patrons&bought goods in quantity to - price, created own factories that so buy farm machines for -
-granger laws-regulate RR&grain elevator rates

18.3.3 which planks in 1892 populist platform represented farmers(A)industrial(B)Both(C)

(A)regulate RR+ of$supply to$50 per person,free coinage of silver
(B)shortning of workers day,gov take RR,telegraph,telephone,products belong to workers
(C)free coinage of silver,income tax(rich),direct election of senate

18.3.4 election on 92 effect by(A)race **issues(B)labor strife

(A)pop. try to appeal to both>Dem lose votes&say pop prevent law&order,pop.lose white vote&ignore blacks
(B)homestead(miners riotes,Harrison senst in troops)

18.3.5during clevelands2nd term action by P/congress for (A)money problem(B)tarrif**(C)strikes

(A)repeal Sherman Silver act bclosing gold bc ppl trade for silver
(B)Wilson-Gorman tarriff(2% tax increase on income+4000)
(C)fed troops fight pullman strikers outside chicago
-fed ct say striking was conspircy in restraint of trade
-junction -told workers to stop striking>CO turn to cts to stop strike

18.3.6How fed courts assist bussiness managers during teir strugle with labor

fed troops fight pullman strikers outside chicago
-fed ct say striking was conspircy in restraint of trade
-junction -told workers to stop striking>CO turn to cts to stop strike(arrested)
-bad time to be worker

18.4.1 Why dem&pop chose bryan as canidate for P in 96

-repre. common ppl,&distrust rich
-him&god against opp&satan
-pro free silver

18.4.2 who managed mckinley campaign?tactics

-mark hanna, let bryan talk himself to defeat
-bryan radical bc bussiness shut down if byan won,went to factories&say bryan's plan will-wages
-mckinley had front law tactics

18.4.3 in 96 why rep in

-bryan cannot carry state vote for urban ind states.
-one issue canidate that did not appeal to industry/city

****Moes1:show national division between 79-96,between 2 parties,How situation make for age of timid P,How stimulate rise of populists

-

Moes2:Why arthurs as P demostrate admin office can be lifted above narrow party politics

-Although Arthur stalways saw effect of spoils system(unfair employment>garfields death)&oppose system w. pendleton act

****moes3"Cheap money" V"soundmoney"&why
(A)elderlycity couple living off savings
(B)kansas wheat farmer
(C)factory worker
(D)merchant selling chiefly to farmers
(E)banker

(A)cheap$bc running out of savings &more$
(B)cheap$bc hit by depression&+$better
(C)sound$-same wadge4same effort,factory no close,
(D)cheap$-debtors need more$ for same amount
(E)checap$-ppl pay more bills for same amount

moes4Evidence for/agaisnt Cleveland concern w.gov&spending then facing issue of the day

-vetoed civil war pensions for undeserving ppl
-vetoed pension bill for veteran served ranks 90+day
-annual adress against high tariff that bussiness used to keep out forgein competit
-repeal Sherman Silver act
-Wilson-Gorman tarriff
-fed ct say striking was conspircy in restraint of trade
-junction -told workers to stop striking>CO turn to cts to stop strike

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