Kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon Britain
2. Mercia ( Central)
3. Wessex( South)
Alfred the Great
The king of Wessex, alfred the great, had to flee, but he was able to sueccessfully withdraw the bulk of his army without surrendering or suffering overwhelming losses
Grandson of Alfred the Great. in 955, he finally drove the viking invaders form Britain. He was able to successfully unite the kingdoms of Britain under his controll finally uniting Britain, which would now be known as the land of the Angles (Angleland) = England
One of the prominent of the leaders that was paid through the Dane Geld, he was the Danish King
A deal with the Viking leaders by paying them a series of tributes throughout the duration of Ethelred the Unready
Ethelred the Unready
Took control in 0978. He was related to Alfred the Great. While he was in power, he was being attacked on all coasts by Viking conquerors. He was unable to push the vikings out. Therefore, he made the Dane Geld. He died on April 1016
Replaced Ethelred as king after his death. He was a formidable warrior and war leader. He became known as Edmund II. He was part of the war between him and Canute, and he was defeated by Canute. He was still able to keep Wessex thought because Canute had gotten repect fot Edmund.Edmund died a month after his defeat on Nov. 30, 1016
Battle of Ashingdon
The battle took place on Oct. 18, 1016 where Canute the Great defeated Edmund II, and took power af all three kingdoms. Canute allowed Edmund II to still rule wessex though
Edward the Confessor
The successor of Canute the great. During his power England fell into a series of competing Earldoms. He had Norman ties. At first chose to throne to go to William I, but on his death bed he chose Harold II, the Earl of East Anglia. He died in Jan. 1066
Disputed Harold's claim to the throne, because he was originally supposed to become the king after Edward. wasnt feared in battle by Harold II and didnt have as a strong claim as Harold II did to throne. William was the Duke of Normandy and wanted to fight for the throne. William defeated Harold II in the Battle of Hasings and Harold II died. William I of Normandy was crowned the King of England and the Nordman line of English rule began and with that ended
Harold II (Harold Godwinson)
Most powerful Earl in England at the time. Edward passed power to him on deaeth bed. Through series of battles adn marriage alliance, he secured Wessex. Would be the last Anglo-Saxon suler of england. Claim to throne was stronger than William's and didnt fear him in battle. was to defend the throne against William, but a large Viking army showed up ready to conquer. faced his brother Harald Hardrada, the king of Norway. defeated Harald Hardrada at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. lost to William I at the Battle of Hastings and died in that battle
in 1066 he led a large Viking army near Yorkshire. he was the king of Norway and Harold II's brother
Battle of Stamford Bridge
On September 25, 1066, Harold II and his Anglo-Saxon forces surprised the Norwegian Vikings and won a decisive victory just outside of York. Hardrada didnt believe that the Anglo-saxons armies would be able to march north so quickly. Hardrada and Tostig were killed along with many of their men, and those that survived fled to their ships
Battle of Hastings
On October 14, 1066 Harold II and the Anglo saxons faced William II and the Normans. the anglo saxons marched 240 miles in 13 days to meet the Normans. Anglo-saxons were tired, but fought with valor. The norman army was fresh, and had superior arches and cavalry. The Normans defeated the Anglo-saxons, and Harold II and two of his brothers were killed during battle
Also known as the "Latin Orient," this area now consists of all of Israel, including parts of Lebanon, Syria, and southeastern Turkey. the levant was divided into 4 major crusader states by the christians
Sacked the pilgrimage and Church of Holy Sepulchre in 1009. he was the ruler of Fatimid dynasty. desecration that he did help to lead to Crusades and stirred Europes emotion
answered the call for help from Alexius Comenus in 1095. launched the first crusade in 1096. was the pope at the time of the first crusade
Alexius I Comnenus
the emperor of the Byzantine empire of 1095. called for help form the papacy to help them fight off the Seljuk Turks, and defend Christian Land
1st Major reason for the crusades
fatimid sacked the pilgrimage hospice of Jerusalem, a place for visiting christians. also destroyed the church of the holy sepulchre, a church built on calvalry hill and held jesus tomb
2nd Major reason for the crusades
in europe many traditional "barbarian" societies were becoming "civilized" and needed a way to fight becuase most were warrior cultures
3rd Major reason for the crusades
The byzantine empire (eastern christianity) was being threatened by the Seljuk Turks (Muslims) and had been calling upon the Papacy for help. the papacy used this as an excuse to carry on and conquer the holy land.
4th Major reason for the crusades
muslim fanaticism was also growing, they also had rights to the holy land and were ready to defend it
The Hundred Years War
England and France fought over the immediate cause of who would inherit the throne and distant causes of the wool trade and the control of Flemish towns
is the feeling of unity and identity that binds together a people who speak the same language, have a common ancestry, and customs, and lice in the same area. This inspired both countries to drive foreigners out of their country and protect their country and the feeling inspired people
Joan of arc
she was a peasant girl in France who led France to victory in an obscure way. she was captured and then burned in England for supposed sorcery. she became a patron saint, and during the war was revered as a hero, especially because she was teenage girl. she might have had schitsfrenia. preached that being righteous wold win them the war.
Why was the Book of Revelation so popular during the late Middle Ages?
It was popular because it deals with visions of the end of the world, disease, war, famine, and death. this is everything that people were experiencing at that time, so people could relate to it.
What were the reasons for the peasant revolts in France and England in the middle and late 14th century?
the varied, but in general because of the steady communication of labor services for cash rent, and the drastic cut labor services peasants demanded higher wages and more pay, fewer manorial obligations, and more protection. lords then froze wages and binded workers to manors . so the peasants then revolted.