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organizational behavior questions

Organizational learning

To maintain intellectual capital, organizations depend on their capacity to acquire, share, and use knowledge more effectively. This process is often called _______________.

intellectual capital

The knowledge that resides in an organization is called __________.

knowledge management

Vepco Corp. is an open system through employees and systems that supports _________________. This is any structured activity that improves Vepco's capacity to acquire, share, and use knowledge in ways that improve its survival and success.

relationship capital

Michael's Day Care knows that it can always count on SoSoft Baby Supply to provide safe products for use in the franchise's day cares. The mutual trust between Michael's and SoSoft is an example of ________________.

corporate social responsibility (CSR)

As a corporate leader at his organization, Jacob was particularly concerned with the company's activities that would benefit society and the environment beyond the firm's immediate financial interests or legal obligations. Jacob's concerns are related to the organization's ______________.

globalization

Jessica is a recent college grad and works for a large cell phone company's customer service center. She answers questions from customers and helps fellow young people download the latest trend in pop culture, trendy ring tones for their cell phones. Her customers think they are speaking to someone like themselves—hip, young and American; but Jessica is answering customer service calls from her office in Spain. This is an example of_____________.

Multidisciplinary, systematic research, contingency, multiple levels of analysis

__________, ___________, _________, and ___________, are the four conceptual anchors of OB.

Organizational efficiency

__________ is the ratio of inputs to outcomes.

human capital

The knowledge that employees carry around in their heads refers to:

Organizational efficiency

What is the ultimate dependent variable in organizational behavior?

Intellectual capital

_______ is also called knowledge management.

Values

_______ are relatively stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences for outcomes or courses of action in a variety of situations.

competencies

One specific challenge for George, as a store manager, is to match the ____________ that people possess with those that each job requires.

Agreeableness

Which of the "Big Five" dimensions refers to being good-natured, empathetic, caring, and courteous?

enacted values; espoused values

By watching Rita, we can observe her ___________. However, if we talk to Rita about an issue like environmentalism, for example, she will express to us her __________, which may or may not differ.

power distance

Riya is originally from India. Dana has a high ____________ value—she accepts and values unequal power.

Medium-low; medium-low; achievement; individualist

United States = ___________ power distance, ___________ uncertainty avoidance, achievement/nurturing oriented, collectivist/individualist

Motivation

What represents the forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior?

Conscientiousness

According to the Five-Factor Model of Personality, people with a high score on which of the dimensions tend to be more self-disciplined, dependable, and careful?

Self-efficacy

What is a person's belief that he or she has the ability, motivation, correct role perceptions, and favorable situation to complete a task successfully?

enacted values

What represents the values we actually rely on to guide our decisions and actions?

Ability

___________ includes both the natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task?

Extroversion

_______, according to the Five-Factor Model of Personality, characterizes people who are outgoing, talkative, sociable, and assertive.

internal locus of control

Those who feel that they can influence their own destiny have a(n) _______.

Conservation

What, according to the Schwartz's Values Circumplex, include the value clusters of conformity, tradition, and security?

uncertainty avoidance.

The degree to which people tolerate ambiguity or are threatened by it refers to

selective attention

David is a nurse in the maternity ward at a busy hospital. David's day is filled with people and events vying for his attention. The red light on the nurse station console receives his attention because it is bright, flashing, and a rare event, and so it gets successfully filtered through the ___________ process.

Social perception

Regis is from New York City-born and raised-and this is an important part of his social identity. By viewing himself as a New Yorker, Regis removes his individuality and instead sees himself as a prototypical representative of the group called New Yorkers. This represents which activity in the process of forming and maintaining social identity?

external factor

Linda failed to show up to her last two staff meetings on time due to an overlapping client meeting. Even though those two instances were unusual circumstances, when Linda failed to show up to the most recent staff meeting on time, the rest of the group attributed it to the same ____________ and proceeded with the meeting on-schedule.

distinctiveness

"How often does the person act this way in other settings?" addresses ___________ in the attribution theory?

self-serving bias

Lacey is working on a group project for her economics class. The professor had high praise for the group's ability to turn in their work early and also for the creative Power Point presentation which accompanied it. However, there were a few conceptual errors the professor wanted to clear up and it lowered their grade. Lacey took credit for meeting the deadline early and also for the Power Point presentation; however she blamed the errors on others in the group pointing out each individual's contribution to the professor. This is an example of ____________.

open

In the Johari Window, which area includes information about you that is known both to you and others?

antecedents; consequences

Although _______ is (are) important, behavior modification mainly focuses on the _______ of behavior.

Positive reinforcement

_______ occurs when the introduction of a consequence increases or maintains the frequency or future probability of a behavior.

Continuous reinforcement

_______ is the most effective schedule of reinforcement.

Mental models

_______ represent the visual or relational images in our mind representing the external world?

fundamental attribution error

Mike always sees his employees rather than the situation as the main cause of their behavior. Mike can be described as suffering from _______?

halo effect

When our general impression of a person, usually based on one prominent characteristic, colors our perception of other characteristics of that person, it refers to _______ ?

open

The main objective of the Johari Window is to increase the size of the _______ area so that both you and colleagues are aware of your perceptual limitations.

Negative reinforcement

_______ increases or maintains the incidence of behavior by removing or avoiding a consequence.

stereotyping

The process of assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social category refers to

distinctiveness

According to the attribution theory, "How often does the person act this way in other settings?" describes _______ ?

False consensus effect

_______ refers to "similar to me" effect?

Unknown

Which area, according to the Johari Window, includes your values, beliefs, and experiences that aren't known to you or others?

Concrete experience

Which stage of Kolb's Experiential Learning Model involves sensory and emotional engagement in some activity?

Attitude

_______ represent the cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings, and behavioral intentions toward an object?

cognitive dissonance.

A state of anxiety that occurs when an individual's beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors are inconsistent with one another is called _______.

emotional labor

Boobi is having a bad day. Her three-year old is running a fever and her mother-in-law is taking care of him, she herself is feeling a little under the weather, she is running late and on the way to work she spills her coffee all over her new suit. As she drives in horrible rush hour traffic, Bobbi takes out her frustration by smacking the steering wheel. Once she arrives at work however, she smiles and is sure to provide the best customer service possible. Bobbi is experiencing __________.

emotional dissonance.

When conflict between required and true emotions occurs, it is called ________.

Self-awareness

What is the lowest level of emotional intelligence (EI)?

Organizational commitment

_____________ best characterizes the way Daniel relates to Fancy Fish, the restaurant where he has built a career over the last 27 years. Daniel actually has an emotional attachment to Fancy Fish itself and identifies with the organization.

continuance commitment

Nick believes it is in his own personal interest to remain with the accounting firm where he has been working. He believes it would be too costly to quit, even though he does not particularly like everyone he has to work with. Austin is experiencing _____________.

the employment relationship

One of the key influences on organizational commitment is __________.

Alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion

General adaptation syndrome involves which stage sequence?

Remove the stressors, withdraw from the stressors, change stress perception, control stress consequences, receive social support

What are the 5 ways to manage workplace stress?

Emotional labor

_______ is the effort, planning, and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.

exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model.

The four ways that employees respond to job dissatisfaction refers to the

General adaptation syndrome

_______ is a model of the stress experience, consisting of three stages: alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion.

Emotions

_______ are physiological, behavioral, and psychological episodes experienced toward an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness.

Emotional dissonance

_______ occurs when we perceive an inconsistency between our beliefs, feelings, and behavior.

Emotional intelligence

_______ refers to the ability to monitor our own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate between them and to use this information to guide our thinking and actions?

continuance commitment.

An employee's calculative attachment to the organization, whereby an employee is motivated to stay only because leaving would be costly refers to

Resilience

_______ is the capability of individuals to cope successfully in the face of significant change, adversity, or risk.

Self-actualization

_______ represents Beth's personal need for self-fulfillment. Beth strives to sense that her potential has been realized. Her personal goal of climbing Mt. Everest is a component of her achieving this level in Maslow's needs hierarchy.

drive to learn; drive to defend

Drew's department has just received a new computer program that he is curious to try out, triggered by his ____________. His boss, Megan, tells him that he is too inexperienced to use the program yet, which makes Drew somewhat angry, triggered by his _______________.

Expectancy theory

__________ is a motivation theory based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes.

relevant goals

Conchita makes sure that when she sets individual work goals for her staff in the admissions office at the local college, the employees actually have direct control over meeting them. Conchita is making sure she sets ____________.

Changing the comparison other

__________ could be used to restore equity feelings.

task significance.

The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the organization and/or larger society is referred to as ___________.

Job enrichment

__________ would allow employees to feel they have more responsibility.

self-determination

Empowered employees experience __________.

Job design

__________ refers to the process of assigning tasks to a job, including the interdependency of those tasks with other jobs?

Motivation

__________ refers to the forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior?

Needs

_______ are goal-directed forces that people experience.

expectancy theory

Which motivation theory is based on the idea that work effort is directed towards behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes?

Distributive justice

_______ is perceived fairness in the outcomes we receive relative to our contributions and the outcomes and contributions of others.

Job enrichment

_______ occurs when employees are given more responsibility for scheduling, coordinating, and planning their own work.

Maslow's needs hierarchy theory

_______ is a motivation theory of needs arranged in a hierarchy, whereby people are motivated to fulfill a higher need as a lower one becomes gratified.

Four-drive theory

Which theory is based on the innate drives to acquire, bond, learn, and defend that incorporates both emotions and rationality?

goal setting.

The process of motivating employees and clarifying their role perceptions by establishing performance objectives is called

Job specialization

_______ is the result of division of labor in which each job includes a subset of the tasks required to complete the product or service.

Empowerment

_______ is a psychological concept in which people experience more self-determination, meaning, competence and impact regarding their role in the organization.

high degree of moral intensity

Senior executives at CyberForm must make a decision that will affect many people and where the decision may produce good or bad consequences for those affected. This decision has a///

increase the amount of autonomy

To increase an employee's feelings of experienced responsibility, we would _______ in the person's job

it is almost impossible to evaluate the benefits or costs of many decisions

One problem with the utilitarian principle of ethical decision making is that

emotions and beliefs

In the model of emotions, attitudes and behavior, feelings are directly influenced by:

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