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Henry Ford

United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)

A. Mitchell Palmer

Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be un-American and socialistic; he helped to increase the Red Scare; he was nicknamed the "Fighting Quaker" until a bomb destroyed his home; he then had a nervous breakdown and became known as the "Quaking Fighter."

Lyndon B. Johnson

He was the president that assured the nation that "we shall overcome" when he signed the Voting Rights act of 1965. He also took steps to end discrimination earlier when he signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Winston Churchill

Britain's new prime minister during WWII who pleaded for US aid

John F. Kennedy

President during Bay of Pigs, and Cuban Missile Crisis. Strong image icon. Creator of Civil Rights Act.

Adolph Hitler

german leader of Nazi Party. 1933-1945. rose to power by promoting racist and national views (dictator of Germany)

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953) (Communist dictator of Soviet Union)

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)

Bill Clinton

42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached

Richard Nixon

he was elected to be US President after Johnson decided to not to run for US president again. He promised peace with honor in Vietnam which means withdrawing American soliders from South Vietnam

Martin Luther King Jr.

U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)

Ronald Reagan

40th U.S. President. 1981-1989. Republican

Malcolm X

1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality

Jimmy Carter

39th president, 1977-1981; he aimed for a foreign policy "as good and great as the American people." His highlight was the Camp David Accords; his low point, the Iran Hostage Hostage Crisis. Defeated for reelection after one term, he became very successful as an ex-president.

Gerald Ford

the first president to be solely elected by a vote from Congress. He entered the office in August of 1974 when Nixon resigned. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. The Vietnam War ended in 1975, in which Ford evacuated nerely 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam. He closed the war. (38th Prez)

Franklin D. Roosevelt

President of the US during Great Depression and World War II

Harry S. Truman

33rd President of the US after Roosevelt's death; approved the use of the atomic bomb against Japan

Herbert Hoover

President from 1929 to 1933, called on businesses to help solve the situation rather than the government. Americans felt he did little to help them. (Republican)

John Dewey

He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."

Margaret Sanger

American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.

JAZZ AGE

Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime

New Deal

Franklin Roosevelt's economic reform program designed to solve the problems of the Great Depression

Neutrality Acts

series of laws passed by Congress in 1935 that banned arms sales or loans to countries at war

Peace Corps

Federal program established to send volunteers to help developing nations

Space race

a competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union

Containment

the policy designed to keep the Soviet Union from expanding its power

Domino theory

the idea that if a nation falls under Communist control, nearby nations will also fall under Communist control.

Television War

Television made this war different than the others because the people that weren't fighting were able to know that reality of what was happening in Vietnam which shocked them. This had many effects on the young people that were already protesting and also changed people's mind who were slightly on the verge.

Black Panthers

political party formed by African Americans to fight police brutality. They urged violent resistance against whites. Many whites and moderate African Americans feared the group.

OPEC

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

Tet Offensive

a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities in early 1968.

Roe v. Wade

(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy

Medicare

National health insurance program for the elderly and disabled. 1965

Social Security Act

created a tax on workers and employers. That money provided monthly pensions for retired people.

War Powers Act

a law enacted in 1973, limiting a presidents right to send troops into battle without consulting congress.

Civil Rights Act

guaranteed blacks the same treatment as whites in certain public places

Voting Rights Act

1965 act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote

Viet Cong

a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.

SCLC

Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success

Creationism

Belief that all life was created by God

Evolution

change over time

Bay of Pigs

An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.

Brown v. Topeka BOE

Schools are ordered to desegregate.

Cold War

A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962 Brink-of-war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the latter's placement of nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

1964 Congressional resolution authorizing President Johnson to take military action in Vietnam

Vietnam War

United States aided South Vietnam in its war of power struggle against North Vietnam, the Vietcong, USSR, and China

Internment

imprisonment

Lend Lease Act

allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S

Ku Klux Klan

Racist group that used violence to keep former slaves powerless and America "racially and morally pure"

Scopes Monkey Trial

a high school biology teacher was accused of teaching Darwinism in class instead of the biblical account of creation; the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism

Red Scare

a period of general fear of communists

Korean War

The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.

18th Amendment

Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

19th Amendment

gave women the right to vote

21st Amendment

repealed the 18th amendment

Margin buying

purchasing stock with borrowed money

Great Depression

a severe, world wide economic crisis which lasted from the end of 1929 to the outbreak of World War II.

"Hundred Days"

the special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months: 100 days.

Truman Doctrine

A doctrine that promised to aid people struggling to resist threats to democratic freedom.

McCarthyism

became a synonym for public charges of disloyalty without sufficient regard for evidence.(communist)

SNCC

Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, college kids participate in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins and such

Great Society

President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.

Watergate

a political scandal involving abuse of power and bribery and obstruction of justice

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