## Vocabulary for Chapters 10-12

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smoshyswag  on May 21, 2012

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It's for my final exam in Chemistry

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# Vocabulary for Chapters 10-12

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#### Definitions

Volatile liquids liquids that evaporate readily
Boiling Point the temperature at which a liquid boils at sea level
Boiling the conversion of a liquid to a vapor within the liquid as well as its surface
Molar enthalpy of vaporization the amount of energy as heat that is needed to vaporize one mole of liquid's boiling point at a constant pressure
Freezing point the temperature at which a solid and a liquid are in equilibrium at 1 atm
Molar Enthalpy of fusion the amount of energy as heat required to change 1 mol of a substance from solid to liquid at constant temperature and pressure
Critical pressure the lowest pressure at which a substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature
Critical Temperature the temperature above which a substance cannot exist in the liquid state
Sublimation (psychology) modifying the natural expression of an impulse or instinct (especially a sexual one) to one that is socially acceptable
Triple Point the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance coexist at equilibrium
Phase Diagram a graph of the relationship between the physical state of a substance and the temperature and pressure of the substance
Deposition the change of state from a gas directly to a solid
Pressure the force applied to a unit area of surface
Newton a unit of force equal to the force that imparts an acceleration of 1 m/sec/sec to a mass of 1 kilogram
Combined gas law P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2, the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas
Absolute zero (cryogenics) the lowest temperature theoretically attainable (at which the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules is minimal)
Dalton's law of partial pressures states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all the gases in the mixture
Partial pressure the pressure of each gas in a mixture
Pascal a unit of pressure equal to one newton per square meter
Atmosphere of pressure the pressure of Earth's atmosphere at sea level; exactly equivalent to 760 mm Hg
Millimeters of mercury a unit of pressure, mm Hg
Barometer an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
soluble (of a substance) capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water)
solution
solvent
solute
a method for solving a problem, a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem, the dissolved substance in a solution
suspension the act of suspending something (hanging it from above so it moves freely)
colloid a mixture with properties between those of a solution and fine suspension
electrolyte
nonelectrolyte
a solution that conducts electricity, a solution that does not conduct electricity
solution equilibrium the physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution and crystallization of a solute occur at equal rates
saturated solution
unsaturated solution
supersaturated solution
a solution that cannot dissolve any more solute under the given conditions, a solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution, a solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution contains under the same condition
solubility the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure
hydration the process of combining with water
immiscible
miscible
liquids that are not soluble in each other, liquids that are soluble with each other
Henry's Law the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid
effervescence the rapid escape of a gas from a liquid in which it is dissolved
solvated, enthalpy of solution a solute particle that is surrounded by solvent molecules, the net amount of energy absorbed as heat by a solution
concentration
molarity
molality
the strength of a solution, the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution, the concentration of a solution expressed in moles

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