Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
Activities normally performed for hygiene, bathing, household chores, walking,shopping and similar activities.
The arrangement of the body and its limbs
The ability of the neuromuscuar system to allow muscles that produce movement and muscles that provide stability to work together synergistically an an integrated functional unit
* Repetitive movements
* Awkward positions and movements
* Lack of joint stability
*Lack of joint mobility
*Imbalanced strength training programs
* Congenital conditions e, g, scoliosis
* Some pathologies e.g. rheumatoid arthritis
* Structural deviations
*Certain types of trauma e.g.surgery, injury, amputation
A longitudinal section that runs at a right angle to the sagittal plane, dividing the body into anterior and posterior positions.
The longitudinal plane that divides the body into the right and left positions.
Line of gravity
A theorectical vertical line passing through the center of gravity, dissecting the body into two hemispheres.
Outward turning about the vertical axis of the bone.
Lying face up
Rotation of the foot to direct the plantar surface outward.
Movement of the foot upward toward the shin.
Distal movement of the plantar surface of the foot; opposite of dorsiflexion
Excessive anterior curvature of the spine that typically occurs at the low back (may also occur at the neck.
The act of moving a joint so that the two bones forming it are brought closer together.
The act of straightening or extending a joint.
Excessive posterior curvature of the spine that typically occurs at the lower back.
Five primary movements performed during daily activities.
* Bending/raising and lifting/lowering movements e.g. squats.
* Single leg lift movements
*Pushing movements(vertical/horizontal planes and resultant movement
Bend and Lift Screen
Objective; To examine symmertrical lower-extremity mobility and stability, and upper extremity stability during a bend and lift movement.
Hurdle Step Screen
Objective; To examine simultaneous mobility of one limb and stability of the contralateral while maintaining hip and torso stabilization under a balanced challenge of standing on one leg.
Shoulder Push Stabilization Screen
Objective; To examine the stabilization of the scapulothoracic joint during closed kinectic chain pushing movements.
Shoulder Pull Stabilization Screen
Objective; To examine the client's ability to stabilize the scapulothoracic joint during closed kinectic chain movements.
Thoracic Spine Mobility Screen
Objective; To examine bilateral mobility of the thoracic spine.
Thomas Test for Hip Flexion/Quadriceps Length
Objective; To assess the length of the muscles involved in hip flexion.
Passive Straight Leg Raise (PSL)
Objective; To assess the length of the hamstrings
Shoulder Flexion and Extension
Objective; To assess the degree of shoulder flexion and extension
Anterior superior iliac spine
Internal and External Rotation of the Humerus at the Shoulder
Objective; To assess internal (medial) and external (lateral) rotation of the humerus at the shoulder joint
Apley's Scratch Test for Shoulder Mobility
Objective; To assess simultaneous movements of the shoulder girdle (primarily the scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joints).
Sharpened Romberg Test
Objective; to assess static balance by standing with a reduced base of support while removing visual-sensory information.
Stork-stand Balance Test
Objective; To assess static balance by standing on one foot in a modified stork-stand position.
Blood Pressure Cuff Test
Objective; To assess core function, as demonstrated by the ability to draw the abdominal wall inward via coordinated action of transverse abdominis (TVA) and related core muscles without activation of rectus abdominus.
Three movements peformed as part of Apley's scratch test for shoulder mobility
*Shoulder flexion and extension
* Internal and external rotation of the humerus at the shoulder
* Scalpular abduction and adduction