# Science Exam

## 58 terms · formulas, definitions, SCIENCE

### Speed formula

distance = speed x time

rise/run

### Acceleration formula

final speed - initial speed / time

### Average speed formula

total distance / total time

mass x velocity

force x distance

power x time

work / time

### Gravitational potential energy formula

weight x height

output force / input force

### Motion

changing position relative to a reference point.

### Reference point

place or object used to determine of an object is in motion. (tree, building...)

meter

liter

seconds

kilogram

### Velocity

speed in a given direction

### Slope

the steepness of a line

### Acceleration

the rate at which velocity changes

### 3 ways to accelerate

increase speed, decrease speed, change direction

a push or a pull

Newtons (N)

no motion

### Unbalanced forces

motion is observed

### Friction

the force that two objects exert on each other when they rub against each other

### Fluid friction

friction that occurs as an object moves through liquid

### Sliding friction

friction that occurs when one solid slides over another

### Static friction

friction that occurs between two objects that are not moving

### Rolling friction

friction that occurs when an object rolls on a surface

### Gravity

the attractive force between objects; the force that moves objects downhill.

### What two factors affect gravity?

mass and distance

### Weight

measure of gravitational pull

### Mass

amount of material in an object

### Newtons first law

also known as the law of inertia. Tenancy to keep doing what it's doing. Whatever is in motion stays in motion and whatever is still stays still unless acted upon by an outside force.

### Newtons second law

force = mass x acceleration

### Newtons third law

for every action, there is an equal opposite reaction. (Ex. balloon)

### Momentum

characteristic of moving objects. The product of an object's mass and velocity.

### Law of conservation of momentum

the rule that in the absence of outside forces that total momentum of objects that interact does not change.

### Six simple machines

incline plane, screw, wedge, lever, pulley and wheel and axle.

### IMA of incline plane

length of plane/width of plane

length/height

### IMA of pulley

number of strings supporting the object

one joule

one watt

### Kinetic Energy

energy that an object has due to its motion

### Potential Energy

the energy an object has because of it's position; also the stored internal energy of an object, such as energy stored in chemical bonds.

### Energy

the ability to do work

### Mechanical Energy

add potential and kinetic energy together

hotter to colder

### Temperature

a measure of how hot or cold something is with respect to a reference point

### Heat

the transfer of thermal energy from a warmer object to a cooler object

### Thermal energy

measure of particles in an object