Organized Union Farm Workers (UFW); help migratory farm workers gain better pay & working conditions
United Farm Workers Organizing Committee
(31.1) formed by the joining of the National Farm Workers Association, founded by César Chávez and Dolores Huerta, and a Filipino agricultural union (also founded by Huerta) in 1966. Chávez and his fellow organizers insisted that California's large fruit and vegetable companies accept their union as the bargaining agent for the farm workers. In 1965, when California's grape growers refused to recognize the union, he launched a nationwide boycott of the companies' grapes. The union sent farm workers across the country to convince supermarkets and shoppers not to buy California grapes. The efforts of the farm workers eventually paid off. In 1970, Huerta negotiated a contract between the grape growers and the union. Union workers would finally be guaranteed higher wages and other benefits long denied them.
La Raza Unida
The United People Party. stated by Jose Angel Gutierrez, political movement, the party ran Latino candidates and won many positions in city government offices
American Indian Movement
led by Dennis Banks and Russell Means; purpose was to obtain equal rights for Native Americans; protested at the site of the Wounded Knee massacre
the doctrine advocating social, political, and all other rights of women equal to those of men.
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
National Organization for Women
Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
she and several other women founded Ms. magazine in 1972. She decided to start the feminist magazine after her previous editors continually rejected her stories about the women's movement
Equal Rights Amendment
Supported by the National Organization for Women, this amendment would prevent all gender-based discrimination practices. However, it never passed the ratification process.
1970s; a new right activist that protested the women's rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s
cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
Haven for young people seeking an alternative to the straight world in 1965. Was located in San Francisco
a British band that had an enormous influence on popular music in the 1960s
3 day rock concert in upstate N.Y. August 1969, exemplified the counterculture of the late 1960s, nearly 1/2M gather in a 600 acre field
Richard M. Nixon
He was a committee member of the House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities (to investigate "subversion"). He tried to catch Alger Hiss who was accused of being a communist agent in the 1930's. This brought Nixon to the attention of the American public. In 1956 he was Eisenhower's Vice-President.
a policy in 1969, that turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems)
federal sharing of a fixed percentage of its revenue with the states
Family Assistance Plan
workfare not welfare, required recipients to register for employment (brainchild Daniel Patrick Moynihan, attempts died in Congress but proved basis for welfare reform in the 90s)
The Southern Strategy was a term that described the Republicans' move to campaign in the south after it had broken with the Democrats over civil rights. This was the beginning of the Republican domination of the south American sees today in national politics.
During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
Organization of Petroleum exporting countries
an economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations.
"realistic politics," practical politics, ends justified the means, power more important than principles
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
SALT I treaty
a five-year agreement between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, sighned in 1972, that limited the nations' numbers of intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched missiles.
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
a key aide to President Nixon who ordered the CIA and FBI not to probe too deeply into the Watergate break-in; he helped provide money to keep the burglars quiet and was later sentenced to prison for his rile in Watergate.
Ehrlichman, along with Haldeman, was one of Nixon's most trusted aids. He was deeply involved with Nixon's scandals since he and Haldeman were Nixon's most trusted aids, doing whatever they felt necessary to protect Nixon.
Famous United States labor leader, and was president of the United Mine Workers from 1898 to 1908. Helped incorporate ethnic workers into the UMW and got an 8 hour day and minimum wage for miners.
Committee to Reelect the President
an organization formed to run Nixon's 1972 reelection campaign, which was linked to the Watergate scandal.
Sirica was the chief judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. He was the judge of the Watergate break-in case and later demanded Nixon's tapes during the whole fiasco.
Saturday Night Massacre
dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus during the Watergate scandal 1973
Gerald R. Ford
Nixon's vice president after Agnew resigned, he became the only president never to be elected. Taking office after Nixon resigned, he pardoned Nixon for all federal crimes that he "committed or may have committed."
The 39th President who created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
National Energy Act
a law enacted during Carter admin, established a tax on gas-guzzling cars, removed price controls on US oil and natural gas, and provided tax credits for development of alternative energy sources.
the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Shi'ite philosopher and cleric who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic. (p. 859)
Camp David Accords
The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
one of the first people to realize the global dangers of pesticide abuse (DDT). Wrote Silent Spring.
a holiday conceived of by environmental activist and Senator Gaylord Nelson to encourage support for and increase awareness of environmental concerns; first celebrated on March 22, 1970
person who works to reduce pollution and protect the natural environment
Environmental Protection Agency
(RN), 1970 an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
Three Mile Island
Nuclear Power Plant in Harrisburg, Penn. which failed, causing radiation to be admitted in the air
Madatory payments made by the federal government to people meeting eligibility requirements, such as Social Security, vets, welfare, medicare
Conservative political movements in industrialized democracies that have arisen since the 1960's and stress "traditional values," often with a racist undertone.
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
The assertion that affirmative action programs that require preferential treatment for minorities discriminate against those who have no minority status.
An alliance of Republicans and southern Democrats that can form in the House or the Senate to oppose liberal legislation and support conservative legislation.
political organization of the United States which had an agenda of evangelical Christian-oriented political lobbying. Formed by Jerry Falwell. Organization made up of conservative Christian political action committees which campaigned on issues its personnel believed were important to maintaining its Christian conception of moral law. This group pressured for legislation that would ban abortion and ban the states' acceptance of homosexuality.
As economy grew, Americans would earn more money and the government would actually collect more taxes at a lower rate than it would if it kept tax rates high.
Strategic Defense Initiative
Popularly known as "Star Wars," President Reagan's SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.
Sandra Day O'Connor
She was a laywer and later Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. She was the first woman to be a justice on the Supreme Court.
the lifting of restrictions on business, industry, and professional activities for which government rules had been established and that bureaucracies had been created to administer.
In 1984 she was the first woman to appear on a major-party presidential ticket. She was a congresswoman running for Vice President with Walter Modale.
43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001
a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
principle that women and men who perform jobs that are of equal value to society and that require equal training ought to be paid equally
L. Douglas Wilder
a Virginia governor who was the first African American to be elected a state governor in the United States
an African-American candidate for the Democratic ticket, campaigned for a "rainbow coalition" of minorities and the disadvantaged
(33.3) First Hispanic cabinet member, appointed by Reagan as secretary of education in 1988
Antonia Coello Novello
(33.3) First Hispanic and first female surgeon general, appointed by Bush Sr. in 1990.
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. (p. 863)
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
a policy of government and economic reform in Soviet Union in the mid-1980s
Reagan and Gorbachev signed this treaty, which provided for the dismantling of all intermediate range nuclear weapons in Russia and all of Europe
Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990
counterrevolutionary group in Nicaragua that opposed the Sandinistas
Operation Desert Storm
Military operations that started on January 16, 1991, with a bombing campaign, followed by a ground invasion of February 23 and 24, 1991. The ground war lasted 100 hours and resulted in a spectacularly one-sided military victory for the Coalition.