Biology Final Review 3

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Tissue that is specialized to cover the inner and outer surfaces of the internal organs is called

epithelial tissue

Tightly connected cells that are arranged in flat sheets are characteristic of

epithelial tissue

Blood, bone, and cartilage are examples of

connective tissue

Connective tissues include

-tendons that connect muscle to bone
-the layer beneath your skin that connects the skin to muscle
-fat

From the smallest functional units to the largest, the body is organized as follows

cell, tissue, organ, system, body

Organs that work together form

organ systems

The heart and the blood vessels are separate organs that form the

cardiovascular system

Which of the following is a function of both the excretory system and the digestive system?

eliminating wastes

The lungs are located in the

thoracic cavity

Which of the following is not part of the axial skeleton?

the pelvis

Yellow bone marrow

provides an energy reserve.

The type of bone that provides the greatest strength for support is

compact bone

The periosteum is a section of the bone that contains

blood vessels

Refer to the illustration above 14. Which of the following is the compact bone?

2

Refer to the illustration above 14. The material labeled "1," which fills the center and spaces at the ends of bones and produces blood cells, is called

marrow

Refer to the illustration above 14. Structure 3 is a

blood vessel

The heart and lungs are protected by the

rib cage

A person with a broken pelvis would probably be unable to

walk

compact bone : periosteum ::

marrow : compact bone

human skeleton : internal organs ::

construction worker's hard hat : construction worker's head

In a fetus, most bones are originally made of

cartilage

What is the difference between cartilage and bone?

Bone contains significant mineral deposits between its cells, while cartilage does not.

Ligaments attach

bone to bone

The point where two or more bones meet is called a

joint

Refer to the illustration above 25. Joint 1 is an example of a

ball-and-socket joint

Refer to the illustration above 25. Joint 4 would most likely be found in the

knee

Refer to the illustration above 25. Which joint allows bones to glide over each other?

3

Refer to the illustration above 25. The elbow, a pivot joint that allows your hand to turn over, is shown in diagram

2

Degeneration of cartilage causes

osteoarthritis

The three types of muscles are

skeletal, smooth, and cardiac

Smooth muscle

can change the diameter of blood vessels.
moves food through the digestive tract
is not under conscious control.

Smooth muscle can be found

in internal organs

The region between Z lines is called the

sarcomere

Actin and myosin

are found in the sarcomeres.
are proteins.
interact during muscle contraction

Repeating units of myosin and actin filaments bound by two Z lines are

sarcomeres

It has been known for a long time that muscle contraction requires ATP. Recently, scientists have discovered that ATP is required in order for the muscle filaments actin and myosin to slide past each other, resulting in muscle contraction. The ATP is specifically required to release the attachments between actin and myosin in the many cycles of attachment, release, and reattachment that result in sliding of these filaments past each other. Which of the following phenomena is explained by this specific role of ATP?

stiffening of a body after death (rigor mortis)

The total amount of force that a muscle exerts

depends on the total number of individual muscle fibers that have been stimulated

Muscle tissue functions to move

blood.
bones.
food in the digestive tract.

Tendons connect

muscle to bone

A muscle can

pull a bone

Muscles that bend joints are categorized as

flexors

Muscles exert force by

pulling on surrounding tissues

The insertion of a muscle

... none of the above

The origin of a muscle

-is at the opposite end of the muscle from the insertion.
-is located on a bone that remains stationary when the muscle contracts.
-does not move when the muscle contracts.

flexors : bend ::

extensors : straighten

The skin performs all of the following except

production of chemical messengers.

The functions of the skin include

defense against microbes.
prevention of dehydration.
regulation of body temperature.

Energy reserves are stored in the skin as

fat cells

Keratin

is a protein

The thin outer layer of the skin is

the epidermis

The dermis of the skin is

involved in temperature regulation.

Refer to the illustration above 52. Which of the following structures is used to eliminate wastes and help regulate body temperature?

7

Refer to the illustration above 52. Which of the structures in the diagram are composed mainly of dead cells?

2 and 8

Refer to the illustration above 52. The portion of the skin labeled "1"

is the dermis

nail root : nails ::

hair follicle : hair

A skin disorder caused by blockage of oil glands is called

acne

The ventricles are

the chambers of the heart that pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body

Refer to the illustration above 58. Structure 4 is

the right atrium

Refer to the illustration above 58. The aorta is structure

3

Refer to the illustration above 58. The vessels labeled "2" carry deoxygenated blood. The vessels are

the pulmonary arteries

Refer to the illustration above 58. Blood in chamber 1

is full of oxygen.

Vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called

arteries

The heart chamber that receives blood from the venae cavae is the

right atrium

Blood entering the right atrium

is deoxygenated.

Oxygenated blood from the lungs is received by the

left atrium.

Which type of blood vessel is both strong and elastic?

artery

An artery has a much thicker muscle layer than

a vein.
a venule.
a capillary

The smallest and most numerous blood vessels in the body are the

capillaries.

An artery

usually carries oxygen-rich blood

If a blood vessel has valves, it is probably

a vein

The force exerted against the arterial walls when the heart contracts is called

systolic pressure

Normal blood pressure in millimeters of mercury is

120/80 for males and 110/70 for females

The pressure exerted on the inner walls of the arteries when the heart relaxes between beats is the ____ pressure.

diastolic

Pulmonary circulation is the flow of blood to and from the

lungs

Atherosclerosis is characterized by

a narrowing of the inner walls of coronary arteries due to buildup of fatty materials.

cholesterol buildup : atherosclerosis ::

atherosclerosis : heart attacks

The iron-containing molecule in red blood cells is called

hemoglobin.

Mature red blood cells

do not have a nucleus.

Infections generally result in an increase in the number of

leukocytes

Red blood cells

transport respiratory gases

Defending the body against bacterial infection and invasion by foreign substances is a function of

white blood cells

Refer to the illustration above 82. These cells are

red blood cells

Refer to the illustration above 82. These cells

contain hemoglobin

nutrients, salts, and proteins : plasma solutes ::

erythrocytes and leukocytes : blood cells

An abnormality involving the platelets would probably affect the process of

blood clotting.

Which of the following is not involved in the formation of blood clots?

formation of fibrin-red blood cell complexes that circulate in the blood and are too large to move through ruptured blood-vessel walls

A person with antigen A on their red blood cells can give blood to someone with blood type(s)

A and AB

Refer to the illustration above 88. The structure labeled "X" is the

trachea

During swallowing, the air passageway of the pharynx is covered by the

epiglottis

Alveoli in the lungs are connected to the bronchi by a network of tiny tubes called

bronchioles

bronchiole : alveoli ::

bronchi : bronchioles

The actual exchange of gases occurs at the site of the

alveoli

Each alveolus

is surrounded by capillaries

Gas exchange occurs when

-oxygen in the alveoli diffuses into the blood in the capillaries.
-oxygen binds with hemoglobin in the red blood cells.
-the red blood cells give up oxygen to the cells of the body tissues.

carbon dioxide : lungs ::

nitrogenous waste : kidneys

Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood in all of the following ways except

by white blood cells.

When the diaphragm and rib cage muscles relax,

expiration occurs

The dome-shaped muscle below the chest cavity is called the

diaphragm.

Which of the following occurs as air rushes into the lungs from the environment to equalize air pressure?

inspiration

The breathing center in the brain is most sensitive to the

concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood.

Which of the following is the final step in using Koch's postulates to demonstrate that a particular agent causes a disease?

An animal infected by injecting the suspected disease agent from an animal with the disease is found to also have the disease agent in its tissues, because a pathogen cultured from the second animal is found to be the same as the pathogen cultured from the first.

Which of the following is true about the release of histamine from cells in nasal passages?

It occurs during an allergic reaction.
It causes nearby capillaries to swell.
It may cause increased secretion by mucous membranes

The body's first line of defense against infection includes all of the following except

interleukin-1

The skin repels pathogens by

functioning as a barrier AND using chemical defenses.

Mucous membranes

line internal body surfaces that are in contact with the environment

Mucous membranes

-are moist epithelial layers that are impermeable to most pathogens.
-line the nasal passages, mouth, lungs, digestive tract, urethra, and vagina.
-contain glands that secrete mucus, a sticky fluid that traps pathogens

The first line of defense against infection includes

mucous membranes.

All of the following have mucous membranes except

the surface of the skin

Mucus is produced by the cells lining the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles

to protect against microbes that might be inhaled.

The stomach is involved in defense against infection by

containing acids that destroy potential pathogens that are swallowed.

Which of the following is (are) a nonspecific defense against pathogens?

the inflammatory response

When the inflammatory response is triggered,

-damaged or infected cells release chemical alarm signals.
-more fluid than normal leaks from capillaries near the injury, and swelling results.
-white blood cells attack invading pathogens.

When a puncture wound becomes infected,

-damaged cells release chemicals that promote the immune response.
-the temperature around the wound increases.
-white blood cells move into the injured area.

The redness and swelling associated with an inflammatory response is caused by

expansion of local blood vessels

Phagocytes, such as macrophages

ingest and destroy pathogens

White blood cells that engulf invading microbes and cellular debris resulting from microbial attacks are called

macrophages

Which of the following engulfs foreign cells?

a macrophage

neutrophils : ingesting pathogens ::

natural killer cells : puncturing membranes of infected cells

Moderate fevers (below 103°F)

inhibit the growth of pathogens and stimulate macrophage action.

Which of the following is (are) not part of the immune system?

alveoli

Refer to the illustration above 121. During which time period are the first antibodies to the pathogen produced?

B

Refer to the illustration above 121. Which time period would be characterized by the most rapid division of B cells?

C

Antibodies

help destroy microbes that invade the body.

Once stimulated by antigens on the surface of macrophages, helper T cells may

stimulate B cells to divide and develop into plasma cells.

The role of helper T cells in immune responses is to

activate two different types of immune system cells.

Cytotoxic T cells recognize cells that have been infected by viruses

because the infected cells have the pathogen's antigens on their surfaces

All of the following are white blood cells that are involved in immune responses except

megakaryocytes.

Which of the following pairs is incorrectly associated?

B cells—engulf cells that are infected with microbes

When B cells encounter a pathogen, they

divide and produce large amounts of antibody.

A few B cells that have encountered a pathogen

become memory cells.

B cells

sometimes remain in the blood for years.
secrete antibodies.
are stimulated by helper T cells.

After the initial immune response subsides, B cells that patrol body tissues for long periods of time

are called memory cells.

Refer to the illustration above 133. The most likely reason for Response II being greater than Response I is that

memory cells were produced during Response I.

pathogenic bacteria and viruses : enemies of humans ::

cytotoxic T cells and B cells : white blood cells

macrophages : helper T cells ::

helper T cells : cytotoxic T cells and B cells

Vaccines are effective in preventing disease because they

Trigger antibody formation.

Secondary exposure to a pathogen

-results in very rapid production of antibodies.
-stimulates memory cells to divide quickly.
-may result in destruction of the pathogen before a person knows he or she is infected.

All vaccines are produced from killed or weakened

pathogens

John and James are identical twins. During the summer following their fifteenth birthday, they went on a vacation and stayed in a cabin with two of their cousins. One of the cousins came down with chicken pox during the vacation. Chicken pox is caused by a virus. Two weeks later, John came down with chicken pox. James, however, never developed any symptoms of the disease. Which of the following is the best explanation for the different responses John and James had to exposure to the same disease?

James had been exposed to chicken pox at an earlier age and developed the disease. His body produced memory cells that protected him from further infections of the disease. John did not get exposed to chicken pox at an earlier age.

A misdirected immune system response against a harmless antigen is called

an allergic reaction

Autoimmune diseases occur when

the immune system attacks the organism's own cells

An autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks myelinated nerves is

multiple sclerosis

Which of the following is true about the release of histamine from cells in the nasal passages?

-It occurs during an allergic reaction.
-It causes nearby capillaries to swell
-It may cause increased secretion by mucous membranes.

Which of the following describes the actions of HIV?

HIV attacks and cripples the immune system.
HIV invades macrophages and helper T cells.
HIV kills large numbers of helper T cells.

Scientists think that practically everyone infected with HIV

will eventually develop AIDS.

A person infected with HIV may

develop the disease called AIDS.
have viruses reproducing in helper T cells.
be more susceptible to a variety of pathogens.

HIV causes AIDS by attacking and destroying

helper T cells.

The debilitating effects of AIDS are due to inability of the immune system to

activate B cells and cytotoxic T cells.
produce antibodies against pathogens.
recognize and destroy infected cells.

HIV can be transmitted

-through sexual intercourse with an infected person.
-by the transfer of body fluids containing HIV or HIV-infected cells.
-by sharing contaminated hypodermic needles and syringes.

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