Vocabulary Workshop Level D Unit 7 - 15

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annex

to add to, attach; to incorporate; an attachment or addition

cleave

to cut or split open; to cling to

cordial

in a friendly manner, hearty; cheery; a liqueur

cornerstone

the starting point of a building; a fundamental principle or element

debacle

an overwhelming defeat, rout; a complete collapse or failure

devitalize

to make weak or lifeless

embroil

to involve in a conflict or difficulty; to throw into confusion

exonerate

to clear from a charge or accusation

glib

ready and fluent in speech; thoughtless, insincere

haphazard

by chance, not planned; lacking in order

improvise

to compose or perform without preparation; to construct from available materials

incite

to rouse, stir up, urge on

influx

a coming in, inflow

pallor

an extreme or unnatural paleness

pedigree

a list of ancestors, family tree; the history or origin of something

precipitous

very steep

profuse

very abundant; given or flowing freely

reconcile

to restore to friendship; to settle; to resign (oneself)

shackle

to put into chains; a chain, fetter

threadbare

shabby, old and worn

adieu

"Farewell"; a farewell

advent

an arrival; a coming into place or view

apex

the highest point; tip

assimilate

to absorb fully or make one's own; to adopt as one's own; to adapt fully

bogus

false; counterfeit

exorbitant

unreasonably high; excessive

interim

the time between; temporary, coming between two points in time

inundate

to flood; over flow; to overwhelm by numbers or size

malign

to speak evil of; slander; evil

meander

to wander about; wind about; a sharp turn or twist

metropolis

a large city; the chief city of an area

momentous

very important

obstreperous

noisy; unruly; disorderly

pensive

thoughtful; melancholy

perilous

dangerous

shoddy

of poor quality; characterized by inferior; dishonest workmanship

sprightly

lively; full of life; spicy, flavorful

surly

angry and bad-tempered; rude

tirade

a long, angry speech, usually very critical

vagrant

an idle wanderer, tramp; wandering aimlessly

assurance

a pledge; freedom from doubt, self confidence

asylum

an institution for care of children, elderly people, etc; a place of safety

console

to comfort; the keyboard of an organ; a control panel for an electrical or mechanical device

dilate

to make or become larger or wider; to expand upon

dross

refuse, waste products

dwindle

to lessen, diminish

flippant

lacking in seriousness; disrespectful, saucy

immunity

resistance to disease; freedom from some charge or obligation

institute

to establish, set up; an organization for the promotion of learning

liability

a debt; some disadvantageous

preposterous

ridiculous, senseless

pugnacious

quarrelsome, fond of fighting

rabid

furious; violently intense, unreasonably extreme; mad, infected with rabies

realm

a kingdom, a region or field ofstudy

rejuvenate

to make young again, to renew

remunerate

to reward, pay, reimburse

sparse

meager, scant; scattered

sterling

genuine, excellent; of standard quality

venture

a risky or daring undertaking; to expose to danger; to dare

warp

to twist out of shape; an abnormally

auxiliary

giving assistance or support; a helper, aid

candid

frank, sincere; impartial; unposed

cubicle

a small room or compartment

drudgery

work that is hard and tiresome

envoy

a representative or messenger (as of government)

escalate

to elevate; to increase in intensity

expedient

a means to an end; advantageous, useful

feign

to pretend

flair

a natural quality, talent, or skill; a distinctive style

grievous

causing sorrow or pain; serious

heterogeneous

composed of different kinds; diverse

horde

a vast number (as of people); a throng

impel

to force, drive forward

incredulous

disbelieving, skeptical

inscribe

to write or engrave; to enter a name on a list

monologue

a speech by one actor; a long talk by one person

prognosis

a forecast of the probable course and outcome of a disease or situation

rasping

with a harsh, grating sound, a harsh sound

repugnant

offensive, disagreeable, distasteful

scuttle

to sink a ship by cutting holes in it; to get rid of something in a decisive way; to run hastily, scurry; a pail

adept

thoroughly skilled, an expert

aspire

to have ambitious hopes or plans, strive toward a higher goal, desire earnestly; to ascend

bleak

bare, dreary, dismal

chide

to blame, scold

despicable

worthy of scorn, contemptible

diminutive

small, smaller than most others of the same type

emancipate

to free from slavery; to release or liberate

erroneous

incorrect, containing mistakes

exploit

to make use of, develop; to make improper use of for personal profit, a feat, deed

extemporaneous

made or delivered on the spur of the moment

impair

to make imperfect, damage, harm

invincible

not able to be defeated, unbeatable

languid

drooping, without energy, sluggish

mire

mud; wet, swampy ground; a tough situation; to get stuck

obtrusive

forward, undesirably prominent; thrust out

preamble

an introduction to a speech or piece of writing

render

to cause to become, to perform, to deliver officially, to process, extract

rugged

rough, irregular; severe, stern, strong, stormy

skeptical

inclined to doubt, slow to accept something as true

slipshod

untidy in dress, personal habits, etc; careless, sloppy

brevity

shortness

comport

to conduct or bear oneself, behave; to be in agreement

concise

expressing much in few words

demure

sober or serious in manner, modest

depreciation

a lessening in value; a belittling

deteriorate

to lower in quality or value; to wear away

divulge

to tell, reveal; to make public

enlightened

free from ignorance and false ideas; possessing sound understanding

forestall

to prevent by acting first

garble

to distort in such a way as to make unintelligible

proponent

one who puts forward a proposal; one who supports a cause or belief

quaver

to shake, tremble; to trill

recoil

to spring back, shrink; the act of springing back

recoup

to make up for, regain

reek

an unpleasant smell; to give off unpleasant smells; to give a strong impression

relentless

unyielding, harsh, without pity

rivulet

a small stream

squander

to spend foolishly, waste

staccato

detached or disconnected in sound or style

statute

a law

appreciable

sufficient to be noticed or measured

autocratic

absolute in power or authority

blanch

to remove the color from; to make or turn pale; to parboil

blasphemy

an act, utterance, or writing showing contempt for something sacred

brawny

strong, muscular

concerted

planed or performed in cooperation with others

contend

to fight, struggle; to compete; to argue

humane

kind, merciful

illustrious

very famous, distinguished

intolerable

unbearable

irreverent

disrespectful

laborious

not easy, requiring hard work, hardworking

lithe

bending easily, limber

maltreat

to abuse, use roughly or cruelly

ponder

to consider carefully, reflect on

subversive

intended to undermine or overthrow; one who advocates or attempts to undermine a political system

synthetic

made or put together by people; something artificial

temperate

mild, moderate

venomous

poisonous, spiteful, mean

wily

sly, shrewd, cunning

ad infinitum

endlessly

apportion

to divide and give out in shares

bona fide

genuine; sincere

buoyant

able to float easily; able to hold things up; cheerful, hopeful

clique

a small, exclusive group of people

concede

to admit as true; to yield, submit

congenial

getting on well with others; agreeable, pleasant

lofty

very high; noble

migration

a movement from one country or region to another

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