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Chapters 25 and 26

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immunity.

allergy

an abnormal reaction of the body to an allergen.

antibodies

Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents

antigens

foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune response.

aorta

The largest artery in the body; it conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.

arteries

blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart

atria

the two upper chambers of the heart- the receiving areas that pool incoming blood.

cancer

uncontrolled cell growth

coronary artery

the artery that branches from the aorta to supply blood to the heart

erythrocytes

red blood cells

excretory system

the system that removes waste from your body and controls water balance

homeostasis

process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

immunity

the quality of being unaffected by something

inferior vena cava

carries blood from lower regions of the body to right atrium

kidney

either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine

landsteiner

blood typing

nephron

any of the small tubules that are the excretory units of the vertebrate kidney

open circulatory system

system in which blood is not always contained within a network of blood vessels

pacemaker

a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat

pathogen

any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)

platelets

tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation

pericardium

membranous sac enclosing the heart

pulmonary vein

any of four veins that carry arterial blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart

recipient

a person who gets something

right atrium

the right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae and coronary sinus

superior vena cava

carries blood from upper regions of the body to right atrium

systolic

measurement of blood pressure taken when the heart is contracting and forcing blood into the arteries

type 1 diabetes

the type of diabetes in which the pancreas produces no or very little insulin; often diagnosed in childhood, although some cases arise in adulthood. formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes

ureter

either of a pair of thick-walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder

urethra

duct through which urine is discharged in most mammals and which serves as the male genital duct

urinary bladder

a membranous sac for temporary retention of urine

urine analysis

qualitative and quantitative comparisons of urine to a set of standards

vaccine

substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity

veins

blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart

ventricles

the two lower chambers of the heart, and they pump blood out to the lungs and body.

virus

(virology) ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts

alimentary canal

digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus

alveoli

tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood

assimilation

the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure

basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure

bile

a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder

bronchi

two short branches located at the lower end of the trachea that carry air into the lungs.

epiglottis

a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe while swallowing

esophagus

the passage between the pharynx and the stomach

glottis

mouth of windpipe

hydrochloric acid

an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride

large intestine

the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body

larynx

voice box

metabolic rate

rate of metabolism

metabolism

the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life

mouth

express in speech

peristalsis

the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along

pharnyx

area at back of throat where mouth and nasal cavity meet

portal

a short vein that carries blood into the liver

stomach

an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal

thorax

part of an insect's body that bears the wings and legs, the part of the human body between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates

trachea

windpipe

villi

tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine

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