The social, artistic, and cultural "rebirth" that arose in Europe in the 14th century. Change in economic/social conditions and art/culture.
Florence, Venice, Milan, and Pisa, forst to experience Renaissance because they were very successful in trade and very scientifically advanced. Were independent of papacy and HRE.
The rejection of supernatural religion as the arbiter of earthly action; emphasis on wordly and humanistic affairs.
Painters' more realistic art
Thomas More (Utopia)
English, wrote Utopia, about an ideal society.
Main religion before Reformation and lagest landholder in Europe.
The act of being barred from the Roman Catholic community by decree of a bishop or the pope.
The official Protestant Church of England, with the monarch as its official head. Founded by King Henry VIII.
Machiavelli (The Prince)
Political theorists, wrote about the rekations and government and described them the way they were, not as they should be.
War of Roses
An English civil war between noble factions over the succession to the throne in the 15th century.
A Russian myth that Moscow was ordained to succeed Rome and Constantinople as the center of true Christianity.
Document that forced all monarchs to obey the laws, accepted by John the First (England).
The family that controlled the Holy Roman Empire after the 13th century; based in Vienna, they ruled Austria until 1918.
Renaissance artist known for sculpture and architcture.
Italian vs. Northern Renaissance
Italian: secularism, individualism, classical values
Northern: humanism, more pietist/reformist
The intellecual movement that sees humans as the sole valid arbiter of their values and purpose.
The English Calvinists who were dissatisfied by the theology of the Church of England and wished to "purify" it.
(1483-1546) Began the Protestant Reformation with his famous Ninety-Five Theses. Also noted for his translation of the Bible into German.
The challenge to church authority publicized by Martin Luther, October 31, 1517.
Justification by faith
Doctrine held by Martin Luther whereby Christian faith alone, and not got works, could be the path to heavenly bliss.
(1509-1564) French theologian who developed the system of Christian theology called Calvinism, as delineated in his text, The Institutes of the Christian Religion.
(1484-1531) Theologian of the early Protestant Reformation who was influential in establishing Protestantism in his native Switzerland.
A doctrine made famous by John Calvin that posits the notion that only a small minority of the human race is predestined for salvation.
Radical Protestant reformers who were condemned by both Lutherans and Catholics.
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Catholic religious order founded in 1547 to combat Protestantism.
Ignatius of Loyola
(1491-1556) Major figure of the Catholic Counter-Reformation who founded the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits.
Founder of the Anglican Church an the Act of Supremacy.
Series of measures that the Catholic Church took in the 1540s to counterattach against the Protestants, including a thorough examination of doctrines and practices and an emphasis on instruction of the young and of all Christians.
Peace of Augsburg
Pact ending the German religious wars in 1555, dividing the country between Lutheran and Catholic hegemony.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
The mass killing of Protestants by Mary.
Edict of Nantes
A law granting toleration to French Calvinists that was issued in 1598 by King Henry IV to end the religious civil war.
The Spanish army/navy that invaded England but faild to conquer it. Philip was angry at Mary's execution.