the factors in the environment that can harm a developing fetus.
fetal alcohol syndrome, and a child may be born with this is the mother consumes large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy.
when infants learn that there is a relationship between their actions and the external world, and acquire the concept of cause and effect.
when an infant realizes that objects continue to exist even when they are hidden from view.
inherited responses to stimulation in certain areas of the body.
incorporating new info into existing schemas
is the changes in existing schemas as a result of exposure to new info or experiences.
the changes in the ability to reason about what is right and wrong.
morality judged in terms of consequences, actions that lead to rewards are good. Actions that lead to punishment are bad. (Kohlberg's Theory of Moral development)
Being aware of social order, morality judged in terms of what supports law and rules in society (Kohlberg's Theory of Moral development)
Post conventional level
morality judged in terms of abstract principles and values that transcend laws and society. (Kohlberg's Theory of Moral development)
the stable individual differences in attention, arousal, mood and reactivity to new situations.
a strong affectional bond between infant and caregiver.
feels safe, explores, uses parent as home base, sociable.
doesn't rely on caregiver for security, avoids contact, explores but doesn't use caregiver as home base.
continuously maintains contact with caregiver, shows pattern of clinginess, inhibited and fearful.
is the aspect of a child's social development when they understand what sex category they belong to.
gender schema theory
when children observe experiences with society's beliefs about female and male attributes, such as parental instruction and observation.
Trust vs Mistrust
infants learn to trust/mistrust environment if needs are not met.(Erickson's stages of Psychosocial Development)
Industry vs Inferiority
ages 6-11 acquire new skills and competencies, take pride and acquire self-esteem, may develop low self-esteem if they compare themselves unfavorably with others.(Erickson's stages of Psychosocial Development)
Self-Identity vs Role confusion
adolescence establishing self-identity, (Erickson's stages of Psychosocial Development)
Integrity vs Despair
late adulthood, when individuals ask themselves if their lives had meaning(Erickson's stages of Psychosocial Development)
changes in our bodies caused by time and genetic factors.
changes in our body due to disease, disuse or abuse.
Challenges faced by adults
parenthood, careers, divorce and separation, caring for aged parents, and retirement.
the internal processes that activate, guide, and maintain behavior over time
the biological needs aroused in our body like hunger/thirst that activate behaviors to eliminate such feelings, and restore us to homeostasis.
the behaviors that come from being pulled by expectation of desirable outcomes, or anything we value as incentives.
Goal setting theory
the motivation that is strongly influenced by challenging goals, which boost you.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological- needs for food, water, oxygen, sleep
Safety- needs for being safe in life, and shelter
Need to belong-social needs, having friends and loved ones to appreciate you
Esteem needs-need to develop self-respect, gain approval from other, and achieve success.
Self-actualization (Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs)
need for self-fulfillment to become all you can be
the desire to accomplish difficult tasks or excel.
the motivation to perform activities because they are rewarding and enjoyable.
physiological responses such as changes in blood pressure and heart rate, subjective feelings like anger, happiness, sorrow, disgust, and expressive reactions, such as changes in facial expression or posture.
Role of emotions
behavior, personal health, and psychological disorders.
Subjective well being
an individual's global judgment of their own life satisfaction.
an individual's unique and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts and feelings.
redirecting emotional responses from a dangerous object to a safe one.
transferring of unacceptable motives or impulses to others
acting in a way you would at an earlier developmental age as a response to threatening situations.
manifestations that emerge when our conscious mind is distracted or inactive, like during sleep.
female side of males
those who are labeled as being hesitant and cautious, who don't make friends easily and prefer to observe rather than become involved.
optimistic views concerning human nature, emphasizing personal responsibility, focusing on the present and personal growth.
unconditional positive regard
Feeling accepted and respected no matter what you say or do.
tendency to show self-discipline, and strive for competence and achievement.
tendency to be compassionate
Dimensions are organized, careful responsible, to disorganized, careless, impulsive.
tendency to enjoy new experiences and idea
seek stimulation and enjoy company
Dimensions are good natured, cooperative and trusting to irritable and suspicious.
Dimensions are posed/calm composed to anxious nervous, high strung.
tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily
Dimensions are sociable, talkative, fun loving to sober, reserved, cautious.
Dimensions are imaginative witty and broad to earth, simple and narrow interests.
Social cognitive theory
The suggestion that human behaviors are influenced by many cognitive factors like perception, evaluation, as well as reinforcement, and that we are able to regulate our behavior appropriately for each situation.
is self-reward for reaching one's own goals
an individual's expectations concerning their ability to perform tasks successfully
Rorschach Inkblot test
a series of inkblots presented to individuals where their responses reveal much about their personalities. A projective measure of personality.
highly competitive, always pressed for time, very irritable and hostile. AGGRESSIVE
individuals that are not highly competitive, not rushed for time and do not readily lose their temper.
those who are labeled as being open, confident, who make friends easily and participate a lot.
Symptoms of FAS
smaller than normal head size, face deformities, heart defects, mental/motor retardation, feeding problems, and short attention span.
Reflexes for babies
Physiological responses of emotion
changes in blood pressure and heart rate
Subjective feelings of emotion
anger, happiness, sorrow, disgust, and expressive reactions
Expressive reactions of emotion
changes in facial expression or posture.
masculine side of females