Why is it more difficult to generalize about ancient Mesopotamian culture than about ancient Egyptian?
A succession of different peoples, each with their own language, religion, and customs, produced a wide variety of achievments.
What practices of the Neanderthal people are considered an indication of the existence of religious beliefs?
First to bury their dead carefully and place funerary offerings in the graves.
Where can the oldest paintings (15,000 - 13,000 B. C. E.) be found?
Caves in Lascaux and Altamira
What visual art is even older (c. 28, 000 - 23,000 B. C. E.) than the cave paintings at Lascaux and Altamira?
Venus of Willendorf, Australia
What was the subject matter of the oldest statues and statuettes?
religious function in funeral ritual
What development during the Neolithic period made possible the growth of communities and villages?
In which civilization did the earliest form of writing develop? What was the name of this writing?
What was the first great literary work of ancient Mesopotamia?
The Epic of Gilgamesh
What was the goal of the journey of Gilgamesh?
Find the meaning of life. Secret of immortality.
What was the subject of the story told by Utnapishtim in the Epic of Gilgamesh?
The story of life, the story of destruction and renewal.
What type of building was the most important structure of the towns and cities of ancient Mesopotamia?
What last great Mesopotamian civilization did the Persians conquer? How far east did the Persian Empire extend? How far west? Who conquered the Persians around 330 B. C. E.?
Babylon; China; Western Libya; Alexander the Great of Macedonia.
Who was the first great architect known to history? What did he build?
Imhotep or Djoser? ; pyramids
What colossal statue stood next to the pyramids at Giza?
Great Sphinx of Giza
What was the most important religious idea of the New Kingdom? What pharaoh is most associated with this concept?
The god Aten and it's temples, Pharaoh Akhenaten
What new capital city was established by Akhenaton?
Amarna, site of Akhetaten
What is the significance in the change of the name Amenhotep IV (Amenhotep) to Akhenaton (Akhenaton)?
To exclude references to other gods
How did the "Amarna art" of the pharaoh Akhenaton differ from conventional Egyptian art?
The lines became more fluid and the facial features were livelier. The artist gave more depth using shadows and the play of light. They were unflattering portrayals.
Which queen of this period is the subject of perhaps the most famous of all Egyptian portraits? Who was her husband?
In the illustration of Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and Three of Their Children (Figure 1.15), is the pharaoh shown as all powerful? What is the object depicted at the top center of the relief?
Yes, he is level with Nefertiti; Aten, the sun god deity.
What event in 1923 increased the fame of Tutankhamen?
Carter opened the burial chamber and first saw the sarcophagus of King Tut
What adjective best describes the temples built by Ramses II at Luxor, Karnak, and Abu Simbel?
During the Bronze Age, what was the most important urban center of Aegean culture on Crete? On the mainland of Greece?
What was the most common subject of the art of the Cyclades Islands?
Marble statues, or idols or women mostly naked.
Where and what was the Labyrinth? What was the Greek myth of the Minotaur, Theseus, and Ariadne?
Crete; a half man half bull creature, the product of the union of Minos wife Pasiphae and a bull. Minos contributed 7 boys and 7 girls who were sent to be devoured by the Minotaur.; Theseus volunteered to stop the grisly tribute. Ariadne the kings daughter who had fallen in love with him went with Theseus and the tributes and killed the Minotaur in the middle of the Labrynths layer.
Why did Sir Arthur Evans refer to Crete as Minoan civilization?
Because of his findings in 1894 at Knossos he found evidence of ancient remains. His finding were of a civilization older than the Mycenaeans- He called in Minoan after the legendary King Minos.
What two reasons did Evans give for his success as an archaeologist?
Very short site so I look at everything closely, and being slow on the uptake, so I never leap to conclusions.
Who was the central figure of Minoan religion?
What war provided the background for Homer's Iliad and Odyssey?
What were the two most important archaeological discoveries of Heinrich Schliemann? According to Schliemann, what city of Homer was buried beneath the Roman city of Ilium?
finding the "Treasure of Priam" at Hissarlik in 1873 (a trove that included two gold diadems, thousands of pieces of gold jewelry, bronze weapons, and silver and copper vessels) and an even larger treasure of gold, silver, and copper ornaments, masks, and swords at the Shaft Graves at Mycenae in 1876-77;