Chapter 36

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The cold War Begins, 1945-1952

Many americans feared that the end of World War II would bring...

a return of the Great Depression.

The Taft-Hartley Act delivered a majoy blow to labor by...

outlawing closed (all-union) shops.

The passage of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights) was partly motivated by...

fear that the labor markets could not absorb millions of discharged veterans.

The Taft-Hartly Act of 1947 was passed to check the growing power of...

labor unions.

The growth of organized labor in the post-World War II era was slowed by all of the following except the...

reduced number of women in the work force.

In an effort to forestall an economic downturn, the Truman administration did all of the following except...

continue wartime wage and price controls.

The post World War II prosperity in the US was most beneficial to...

women.

One striking consequence of the postwar economic boom was...

a vast expansion of the homeowning middle class.

The long economic boom from World War II to about 1970 was especially fueled by...

low energy costs.

Much of the prosperity of the 1950s and 1960s rested on the underpinnings of...

colossal military budgets.

One sign of the stress that the widespread post-World War II geographic mobility placed on American families was the...

popularity of advice books on child-rearing.

The dramatically reduced number of American farms and farmers in the postwar era was accompanied by...

spectacular gains in American agricultural productivity and food growing.

Since 1945, population in the US has grown most rapidly in the...

Sunbelt.

Much of the Sunbelt's new prosperity was based on its...

tremendous influx of money from the federal government.

All of the following encouraged many post- 1945 Americans to move to the suburbs except...

development of fuel-efficient automobiles.

Which of the following did not contribute to the rapid rise of suburbia in post- World War II America?

Urban environmental problems.

By 1960, the proportion of Americans who lived in areas classified as metropolitan suburbs was approximately...

out out of four (25%).

The contined growth of the suburbs led to...

an increase in urban poverty.

Population distribution after World War II followed a pattern of...

an urban-suburban segregation of blacks and whites in major metropolitan areas.

The refusal of the Federal Housing Authority to grant home loans to blacks contributed to...

driving many blacks into public housing.

The huge post-war baby boom reached its peak in the...

late 1950s.

Before he was elected vice president of the US in 1944, Harry S Truman had served as all of the following except...

secretary of the navy.

Harry Truman possessed all of the following personal characteristics except...

willingness to admit mistakes.

In early 1945, the US was extremely eager to secure the Soviet Union's participation in the projected invasion of Japan because...

American casualties were expected to be high if only Americans were involved.

The crucial origins of the Cold War lay in a fundamental disagreement between the US and the Soviet Union over postwar arrangements in...

Eastern Europe.

Which of the following were not among the key decisions made by Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill at the Yalta Conference?

The Soviets and Americans would militarily withdraw from Europe after a peace treaty was signed.

Despite their polital and strategic differences, the US and the Soviet Union strongly resembled one another in 1945 in that they...

had been largely isolated from world affairs and practiced an ideological missionary foreign policy.

Unlike the failed League of Nations, the new United Nations...

was established in a spirit of cooperation before the war's actual end.

One of the most significant structural differences between the old Leauge of Nations and the new United Nations was that the U.N....

gave a veto in the powerful Security Council to the five Great Powers.

The earliest and most serious failure of the United Nations involved its inability to...

control atomic energy, especially the manufacture of weapons.

Which of the following was not among the early sucesses of the United Nations?

Stopping the spread of atomic weapons.

The victorious World War II Allies quickly agreed that...

Nazism should be destroyed in Germany and high-ranking Nazis should be tried and punished for war crimes.

When the Soviet Union denied the US, Britain, and France access to Berlin in 1948, President Truman responded by...

organizing a gigantic airlift of supplies to Berlin.

Soviet specialist George F. Kennan framed a coherent approach for America in the Cold War by advising a policy of...

containment.

America's postwar containment policy was based on the assumpsion that the Soviet Union was fundamentally...

expansionist but cautious.

The fundamental idea of President Truman's and George Kennan's containment doctrine was...

Soviet expansion should be blocked by firm but not aggressive military and diplomatic strength.

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