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congress of berlin

(1878) Assembly of representatives from Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire. Meeting was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans - led to greater nationalism.

entente cordiale

The series of understandings, or agreements, between France and Britian that led to their alliance in World War 1

Bernard von Bulow

Chancellor of Germany from 1900 - 1909

triple entente

An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.

Sarajevo

Location where the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of the Austrian Empire was assassinated

Schlieffen plan

Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.

Marne River

1. A river in France, near Paris, which is the high-water mark of the German's push into France
2. The battle at this river stopped the German forces from advancing further into France and possibly taking Paris. The battle at the Marne River was a critical battle in the war.

trench warfare

war from inside trenches enemies would try killing eachother with machine guns and tanks, and poison gas

Verdun

A battle in WWI. Is considered some of the bloodiest fighting in WWI and the German offense was stopped; offensive battle on the western front initiated by Germany in which they hoped to crush France and taken them out of the war, however France was in a very good defensive position and French held it for 10 months. Nearly a million killed. French drew reserve troops from the Somme to help defend. No territory was gained; Battle in WWI that ended in massive casualties and had little direct result

Gallipoli

A poorly planned and badly executed Allied campaign to capture the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during 1915 in World War I. Intended to open up a sea lane to the Russians through the Black Sea, the attempt failed with more than 50 percent casualties on both sides.

Winston Churchill

A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.

home front

the civilian population (and their activities) of a country at war

Hindenburg

President of Germany who died and was replaced by Hitler, this allowed Hitler to combine the powers of President and Chancellor to proclaim himself the Supreme head of State and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces

Lloyd george

the prime minister of Great Britain; platform was to make the Germans pay for WWI (at the Paris Peace Conference)

Allies

in World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers

Wilson

Asked Congress to declare war against Germany. Creator of the 14 points

Freikorps

Germany military (mostly volunteer troops) used by the government of the Weimar republic 2) put down Spartacist revolt in 1919

Fourteen Points

the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations

Paris Peace Conference

The peace conference that decided the terms of WWI peace and Treaty of Versailles.

reparations

As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.

Mustafa Kemal

Turkish statesman who abolished the caliphate and founded Turkey as a modern secular state (1881-1938)

mandates

a nation governed by another nation on behalf of the League of Nations

Weimar Republic

Was the democratic government which ruled over Germany form 1919 to 1933. Was Germany's first democracy and it failed miserably. It had leaders such as Stresseman and Hindenburg.

Spartacists

Left-wing Marxists in Germany who hoped to bring about a proletarian revolution in 1919.

Adolf hitler

German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)

Raymond Poncare

French Prime minister who invaded the Ruhr.

Sinn Fein

an Irish republican political movement founded in 1905 to promote independence from England and unification of Ireland

British Commonwealth

an association of nations consisting of the United Kingdom and its dependencies and many former British colonies that are now sovereign states but owe allegiance to the British Crown

Young Plan

program for settlement of German reparations after World War I. Presented by American Owen D. Young. Set the total reparations at $26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years. Was adopted by the Allied Powers in 1930 to supersede the Dawes Plan.

Kellogg-Briand Pact

an agreement between 15 nations outlawing war; eventually 48 other nations joined the pact; had no way of enforcing peace

Triple Alliance

An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.

Morocco

Allied/Neutral - French Colony (Allied) and Spanish Colony (Neutral)

Balkans

States in the Balkan Peninsula, including Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, and Yugoslavia

Archduke Francis Ferdinand

heir to the throne of Austria Hungary; assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a bosnian serb.; sparked WWI

alliance system

A formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense

Helmuth von Moltke

German Chief of Staff after the retirement of Schlieffen; revised the Schlieffen Plan and put it into action; he is blamed for being indecisive and giving bad orders in the face of war with France, specifically at the Battle of Marne

Joseph Joffre

French general led the French at the Battle of the Marne.

Treaty of London

committed Britain to the defense of Belgium if it were attacked

Central Powers

in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies

Lusitania

American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI

turnip winter

winter of 1916-1917: famine b/c of British blockade in Germany, and food was rationed. 750,000 civilians died form malnutrition

Khaki Girls

girls who worked in the factories during WWI

Ludendorff

junior German officer who captured or destroyed entire Russian armies at Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes

U-boats

German submarines used in World War I

T. E. Lawrence

colonel who led Britain to help the Arabs overthrow the Ottoman Empire. Known as a "romantic" hero, because after he led these attacks, the Middle East was under control of the Allies.

Friedrich Ebert

Gains control of German government after the war. Leader of Social Democrats

Clemenceau

French statesman who played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles (1841-1929)

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

Vittorio Orlando

He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.

war guilt clause

in treaty of Versailles; declared germany and austria responsible for WWI; ordered Germany to pay reparation to Allied powers

Balfour Declaration

British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI

the Great War

Known as World War I and the War to End All Wars: a global military conflict that embroiled most of the world's great powers from 1914 to 1919.

Rosa luxembourg

leader of the Marxist revolutionary group the Spartacists with Karl Liebknecht, violently put to death by the authorities after the uprising

putsch

a sudden and decisive change of government illegally or by force

women's suffrage

(WW) , National American Woman Suffrage Association formed in 1910 carries cause of women's suffrage to victory, granted suffrage in the 19th amendment, women also began to replace men in industries during the war

Irish question

Whether Ireland should gain self-rule. refers to how irish were treated by the british

Dawes plan

A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.

Locarno Act

- settled border disputes
- used diplomacy NOT brinkmanship

disarmament

Program in which the nations of the world voluntarily give up their weapons

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