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Anthropology

the scientific study of the origins and behavior as well as the physical, social, and cultural development of humans.

Forensic Anthropology

the study of physical anthropology as it applies to human skeletal remains in a legal setting

in bone marrow (inside of bones)

Where are blood cells made?

Osteoporosis

weakening of the bone; may happen if there is not enough calcium in the diet and the body takes it from the bones to compensate

osteoblasts

a type of cell capable of migrating and depositing new bone

ossification

the process that replaces soft cartilage with hard bone by the deposition of minerals

osteocytes

an osteoblast that becomes trapped in the construction of bone; also known as a living bone cell

osteoclasts

bone cells involved in the breaking down of bone and the removal of waste

joints

locations where bone meet

cartilage

wraps the ends of bones and keeps them from scraping one another

ligaments

bands that connect two or more bones together

tendons

connect muscle to bone

osteobiography

the physical record of a person's life as told by his or her bones; tells much about a person through the study of the skeleton

epiphysis

the presence of a visible line that marks the place where cartilage is being replaced by bone

Facial Reconstruction

when clay is contoured to follow the height of the facial markers which are positioned at critical locations on the skull

skeletal trauma analysis

the investigation of bones and the marks on them to uncover a potential cause of death

Mitochondrial DNA

type of DNA in bones that is inherited only from the mom

gender, age, height, type of sports they play, nutritional deficiences

Analyzing bones can reveal clues to what such things?

shape of eye sockets, ratio of width to height of nasal opening, projection of upper jaw over lower jaw, width of face

How is distinguishing race determined by the skull?

skull and femur

Distinguishing race is best indicated by which bones?

because of the blending of physical traits

Why is distinguishing race losing its significance?

diet/nutrition (especially lack of vitamin D and calcium); diseases and genetic orders, arthritis, scoliosis; previous fractures; types of work/sports; surgical implants; childbirth

What types of characteristics can bones show?

~206
~450

How many bones do adults have?
How many bones do babies have?

because they are not fused completely yet

Why do babies have 450 bones? [compared to adults who have 206]

30 years

How long do bones continue to increase in size?

In 1932

When did the FBI first open a crime lab

Wilherlm His

Who used skull of Bach to reconstruct his face in clay in 1895?

1800s in Europe

When did scientists begin studying skulls?

females

In what gender do skeletons tend to be smoother (gracile)?

males

In what gender is the surface of the bone where muscle and tendons attach thicker?

males

In what gender is the skull more massive and bumpier?

male

In what gender is the frontal lobe low and sloping?

male

In what gender is the eye orbit usually square?

male

In what gender is the lower jaw square with an angle close to 90 degrees?

male

In what gender is the chin more square?

male

In what gender is the brow ridge thicker and larger?

male

In what gender is the occiptial protuberance on the back of the skulls thicker due to neck muscles?

female

In what gender does the pelvis weigh less?

female

In what gender is the angle of the femur in relation to the pelvis greater?

male

In what gender is the femur thicker?

age 30

When will the suture at the back of the skull (lambdoidal) be closed?

age 32

When will the sagittal (suture running across the top of the skull, back to front) be closed?

age 50

When will the coronal (suture running side to side over the top of the skull, near the front) be closed?

Living bones

What type of bone will shatter in a spiral pattern parallel to the length?

old bones

What type of bone will break perpendicular to the length?

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