What chemical transformed the bacteria in Griffith's experiment
made a model of DNA
Who were Watson and Crick
the living rough cells changed to disease-causing smooth cells
what happened when Griffith mixed the heat-killed smooth cells with the living rough cells?
A virus that infects bacterial cells
what is a bacteriophage?
Phosphorus, the marker in DNA
what element enter the bacterial cells during viral reproduction in Hershey and Chase's experiment?
5 carbon sugars, phosphate group and a nitrogen base
what are the three parts of a nucleotide?
what nitrogen base pairs with guanine?
what are adenine and guanine? (double ring structure)
what is the sugar in DNA?
what results from specific base pairing?
Where is DNA located in the cells of eukaryotes?
which base pairs with adenine?
what enzymes joins nitrogen bases during DNA replication?
What type of bonds join the nitrogen bases?
what is the sugar in RNA?
What base replaces thymine in RNA?
Which type of RNA brings the DNA code to the ribosomes?
what type of RNA brings amino acids to the ribosomes?
what are three consecutive bases in mRNA that represent an amino acid?
where does protein synthesis take place?
what is the process that makes RNA?
Where does transcription take place in eukaryotic cells?
mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
what type of RNA are involved in protein synthesis?
what is a change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information?
what is the pairing of mRNA and tRNA to make a protein called?
where does translation take place?
what are nucleotides sequence in tRNA that pair with mRNA codons?
the order of bases in mRNA
what determine the order of amino acids in a protein?
a stop codon on mRNA
what causes protein synthesis to stop?
what is DNA made of?
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
4 nitrogen bases?
What are cytosine and thymine? (single ring structure)
Eukaryotic chromosomes contain DNA and protein tightly packed together to form a substance called?
In eukaryotic cells DNA is found in the form of chromatin in which DNA is tightly coiled around proteins called?
ribose instead of deoxyribose
uracil in place of thymine
what is different about RNA from DNA?
proteins are made at the?
by joining amino acids to make polypeptide
how are proteins made?
what controls protein synthesis?
transcription and translation
2 main parts of protein synthesis?
the process by which DNA makes mRNA
nucleotide sequences that codes for amino acids are called?
nucleotide sequences that do not code for amino acids are called?
the "language" of mRNA instructions for making a protein is called the ?
mRNA is the ______ for making a protein
three consecutive nucleotides
what do codons consist of?
there are __ condons
3 stop codons
what signals the end of protein synthesis?
____ has anticodons that are complementary to ___ codons
changes in the DNA sequence that affect genetic info
genes or chromosomes
Mutations can occur in?
Genes that affect one nucleotide are called..
______ shift the "reading" frame of the genetic message and affects every amino acid that follows the point of the insertion or the deletion
inserting or deleting a nucleotide
what causes frameshift mutation?